Volume 2, Number 9



The Woman’s Era.

Vol. II. No. 9.



The Woman’s League of Montgomery, Ala., has made application for membership into the National Federation. This club, which was formed in November last, already numbers sixty-five members, and like all the southern women’s clubs, is earnestly enthusiastic in its work of helping to dissipate ignorance and prejudice. Following are the officers: Mrs. H.L. Davenport, president; Mrs. A.J. Rogers, first vice-president; P.H. Patterson, second vice-president; J.W. Alstook, treasurer; J.W. Beverly, recording secretary; S.H. Wright, corresponding secretary.

On Monday afternoon, Dec. 30, the New England Women’s Club held a discussion on the action of the South Carolina Constitutional Convention in disfranchising the Negro. Mr. Frank Sanborn of Concord, Butler R. Wilson, Esq., Rev. Horace Bumstead, president of Atlanta University, Miss Maria L. Baldwin, principal Agassiz School, Cambridge, all took part in the discussion. Mrs. Ednah D. Cheney presided. At the close of the meeting Dr. Bumstead distributed copies of the masterly speech delivered before the convention, Oct. 25, 1895, by Hon. James Wigg of Beaufort, S.C., It is a standing rule of this club not to allow detailed reports of their meetings to be published.

The Moral Educational Association alternate their monthly socials, at which papers are read by distinguished philanthropists, reformers, and literary people. Mrs. Margaret Deland, the novelist, is to contribute one before the season closes. These festive meetings are held in the Bostoniana Rooms, 83 Newbury street, and members are allowed to bring friends on payment of a small fee.

At the annual election of officers of the New England Women’s Press Association Mrs. May Alden Ward was elected president.

The annual election of the Woman’s Era Club resulted in the re-election of nearly all of the old officers and heads of committees.

The inaugural exercises were of the simplest character, a few short speeches, some music, followed by an informal reception with refreshments. The little tea tables were brilliant with lighted candles, silver urns, and dainty china, presided over by young girls in evening dress. The gathering was in St. Augustine lecture room, and the committee having it in charge were, Mrs. A.C. Sparrow, Mrs. R.S. Ransome, Mrs. P. Ruffin, Mrs. Dandridge.

The chairman of the civics section of the club is forming a woman suffrage Ieague to become a branch of the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association.

The Y.E.C. sewing circle, of which Mrs. Lottie Sampson is president, met at MIrs. Sampson’s home in Jamaica Plain, Thursday afternoon, January 16, to take the first steps towards holding a fair for the benefit of St. Monica’s Home for sick and destitute women and children.


Called by the Woman’s Auxiliary to the Negro Department of the Cotton States and International Exposition, Atlanta, Ga., Mrs. B.K. Bruce, president, takes its place as one of the notable features of the Negro Department of the Exposition, and reflects great credit upon all concerned in bringing it to a successful culmination.

The opening session was called to order by Mrs. Rosetta Lawson, Friday, 10 A.M., at Bethel A.M.E. Church. After the reception of delegates, officers for the Congress were elected amid the greatest, harmony, resulting as follows:

  • President, Mrs. Lucy B. Thurman, Michigan.
  • 1st, Vice-Pres., Mrs. B.T. Washington, Alabama.
  • 2nd Vice-Pres., Mrs. F.E.W. Harper, Penn.
  • Sec., Mrs. Rosetta E. Lawson, Washington, D.C.
  • Ass’t Sec., Prof. Mary V. Cook, Kentucky.
  • Fin. Sec., Mrs. Arthur S. Gray, Kansas.


  • Mrs. Arthur S. Gray, Kansas.
  • Mrs. Charles R. Douglass, Washington, D.C.
  • Mrs. T.H.T. Lyles, Minnesota.


  • Mrs. J.W.E. Bowen, Atlanta.
  • Mrs. J.C. Napier, Nashville, Tenn.
  • Mrs. Frances Preston, Michigan.M
  • Mrs. Fannie Barrier Williams, Illinois.
  • Mrs. F.E.W. Harper, Pennsylvania.
  • Mrs. W.B. Derrick, New York.


  • Mrs. Victoria Earle Matthews, New York.
  • Mrs. B.T. Washington, Alabama.
  • Mrs. Sylvanie F. Williams, New Orleans.
  • Mrs. Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, Boston, Mass.
  • Mrs. F.E.W. Harper, Pennsylvania.
  • Mrs. Lucy Laney, Georgia.
  • Mrs. Emma Ford, Michigan.
  • Mrs. Lucy B. Stevens, Virginia.
  • Mrs. Lucy Thurman, Michigan.
  • Mrs. Christine S. Smith, Tennessee.
  • Mrs. Lillian Thomas Fox, Indiana.
  • Mrs. A.E.P. Pride, Virginia.
  • Mrs. A.S. Gray, Kansas.
  • Miss Lucy Moten, Washington, D.C.
  • Mrs. Garnet, Atlanta.
  • Mrs. Ida Jackson.
  • Mrs. Pitts, Missouri.
  • Lucy Hughes Brown, M.D., North Carolina.


Recognizing that there is a great need of bringing before the Anglo-Saxons of these United States the capabilities of the Negro, and feeling assured that this may best be done by contact with them, therefore be it

Resolved, That we, the women of this Congress, endorse the Cotton States Exposition in giving the Negro the chance to show what be is doing and the possibilities of his future, but be it further

Resolved, That we condemn in strongest terms the sale of liquor and all intoxicants in the lunch room of the Negro Building of the Cotton States Exposition, and consider it a direct reflection upon the intelligence and respectability of our race.

WHEREAS, it has come to our observation and knowledge that for years the convict lease system of the Southern States has been a Subject of national slander, in which the indiscriminate mixing of males and females has been the most abhorrent feature, therefore

Resolved, That the women of this Congress upon the legal authorities of the states where the convict lease system is in force, to at least make proper provision for the separation of the sexes, in common justice and as an honest concession to our common human nature.

Resolved, That we ask the co-operation of the generous white women of the South to assist us in all honorable ways to correct the evil here complained of.

Resolved, That this Congress express its sense of appreciation of the efforts already put forth by Gov. Atkinson of Georgia to correct evils acknowledged to exist in the penal system of this state, and that we would be grateful to the governors of all states concerned if they would emulate his noble example.

Resolved, That as the National W.C.T.U. offers so many opportunities through which the women of our race may be enlightened and encouraged in their work for humanity, therefore be it further resolved that we, as Afro-American women, accept these opportunities by entering this open door, and heartily endorse the work taken up by the W.C.T.U., but insist that their attitude in regard to the lynching evil and color prejudice question generally be less equivocal.

WHEREAS, many women of this Congress, coming from points remote, have had experience with the separate car system prevailing in many states of the south, of it brutal, inhuman and degrading nature, and

WHEREAS, the separate car system is contrary, not only to the law of contract but to the genius of our liberal institutions, tending to accentuate unduly discriminations on account of color and condition, and

WHEREAS, it is the proud boast of Southern white men that the ennobling of womanhood is the basis of all chivalric manhood,

Resolved, That we call upon the Southern legislators, in the name of the common womanhood, to adopt a first and second class fare, so that the womanhood of the race may be protected from every outrage and insult. We trust that the white men of the South now in power will heed this just petition.

WHEREAS, all forms of lawlessness is prejudicial to the best interest, the highest development and fair fame of all the people of America, our common country, and

WHEREAS, there does exist in many parts of our country a most deplorable disregard for law and order, and in many commonly reported cases for humanity itself, and

WHEREAS, all tendency toward mob rule, lynching, burning, midnight marauding, and all unlawful and unjust discriminations, is not only contrary to the fundamental principles of our government, but a menace to every department of justice and the well being of posterity,

Resolved, That we condemn every form of lawlessness and miscarriage of justice, and demand, without favor or compromise, the equal enforcement of the law for all classes of American citizens.

WHEREAS, one Dr. S.A. Steele, a prominent minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church, south, and editor of the Epworth Era, the official organ of the southern Epworth League, has in that paper made one of the most scurrilous attacks that has yet appeared against the Negro,

Resolved, That we, the women of this Congress, most severely condemn this article and all such articles which may hereafter appear, as they seriously misrepresent us and are detrimental to the work we are doing and what we hope to accomplish.

WHEREAS, organization among women has proved a most active agent in stimulating and inaugurating needed reforms and wise movements for the advancement of progress, not only of women, but mankind in general, and

WHEREAS, there are efforts now being made for the unification and concentration of existing national associations among women at this time in Atlanta, and

WHEREAS, it is the policy of the National Federation of Afro-American Women, Mrs. B.T. Washington, president, to unite in one common bond of mutual sympathyand kindly interest the women of all sections, with the view of serving the common good by establishing one strong organization which shall truly represent the colored women of the country,

Resolved, That this Congress endorse and co-operate with the National Federation of Afro-American Women in the final establishment of one truly representative national body of colored women.

Miss Lucy Moten, of Washington, objected, on the ground that the resolution as it stood gave the Federation the advantage of the National League. Mrs. Matthews offered an amendment, and the resolution as amended was adopted. The amendment was as follows:

Resolved, That this Congress recommend to file various organizations here represented, local, state and national, the wisdom of uniting for the establishment of one national organization of women.

WHEREAS, we a race have never been taught to feel and appreciate the value of good homes, and

WHEREAS, to this day there are to be seen in many of our country communities the one room log cabin where many live together in an unwholesome atmosphere which is detrimental both morally and physically to the best growth and development of the masses,

Resolved, That as a body of women we do urge upon the teachers and leaders of our race the necessity and importance of mother’s meet-

ings, social purity talks and such other agencies as shall most forcibly impress upon the mothers of our race the evil influences generated by the admission of frivolous or obscene books or pictures into their homes.


WHEREAS, the colored women of this country stand very greatly in need of all the aid and assistance that the more fortunate and intelligent members of the race can offer them, and

WHEREAS, the elevation of the motherhood and womanhood of the race is the most effectual and powerful means for raising the mental and moral standard of the masses of our people, therefore be it

Resolved, That we hereby pledge ourselves individually and collectively to use every effort in our power,

1. To establish homes among our people the influence of which will tend to the development of men and women of strong character and purity of purpose in life.

2. To demand of our leaders and teachers the highest standard of’ character, refinement and culture.

3. That we require the same standard of morality for men as for women, and that the mothers teach their sons social purity as well is their daughters.

4. We condemn the universal prodigality of the race and urge upon our people, having the best interests of the race at heart, to give permanence to our present progressiveness by practising strict economy in their homes and business relations, and to count no effort insignificant which is made in the interest or with a view toward the purchase of a home.

Resolved, That it is the duty of the colored women of the country to take a more practical interest in the condition and treatment of the unfortunate members of our race and in making proper provision for the establishment of reformatories and institutions for the orphans, the aged, and the infirm, not excepting those institutions that have steadily adhered to the broadest of philanthropic principles, and thrown wide their doors to suffering humanity regardless of color, past condition or creed.

Realizing the gravity of our social and economic condition, and the wide influences of our teachers in assisting in the formation of the character of our children,

Resolved, That we urge upon those in authority to exercise the greatest diligence in selecting trained, competent teachers, who are imbued with the love and true spirit of their work. Further we urge upon parents the necessity of co-operating with the teachers in all matters that pertain to the successful development of those intrusted to their care.

Resolved, That in order to secure healthful bodies in which to contain healthful minds and souls we do heartily encourage all teachers, parents and guardians to make physical culture a prominent feature in their training of our youth.

WHEREAS, since every race must possess intelligence, energy, industry and enterprise in order that it may rank among the great and powerful races of the world, and,

WHEREAS, we feel that the life and prosperity of the home depends largely upon its women who are entrusted with its making, therefore be it

Resolved, That we endorse and encourage every phase of higher industrial education and urge all persons to take such training as will elevate and make the noblest types of woman and man, and thus fit themselves for the actual responsibilities of life.

Resolved, That the tone of the Negro press should be elevated and placed upon such high standard so that none but those having special training for that calling may be encouraged to continue in such work. In the publication of race journals the personality of the editor should either be wholly eliminated or subordinated to questions of public importance. The advocacy

of the selfish ends of any person or persons as against the public interests should be condemned, and no article that is not elevating in its character and pure in its purpose should ever appear in the columns of our newspapers.


Resolved, That we endorse the work of the John Brown Memorial Association of the state of Minnesota, of which Mrs. T.H.T. Lyles is president, and suggest instead of the proposed marble statue, that the funds collected by the association be devoted to the purchase and maintenance of a home farm for helpless and dependent children, the same to be dedicated to the memory of John Brown, and located in that section furnishing the most money for the purpose.

Resolved, That the very courteous invitation to the Afro-American women of the country, as here represented, to hold a meeting in the city of Nashville, Tenn., in the fall or winter of 1896 on such days as shall be hereafter determined upon, from the Mayor and City Council of that city, the Board of Public Works and Affairs, the Chamber of Commerce, the Director-General of the Tennessee Centennial and Executive Committee of the Negro Department of the Centennial, be accepted.

Resolved, That we, the colored women of America, insist upon the highest degree of excellence as the standard of attainment for our race and pledge ourselves to do all in our power to help our artisan, business and professional men and women, who have shown themselves fitted for the respective pursuits in which they may be engaged.

The following letters were read: —


NASHVILLE, TENN., December, 1895.

First Colored Women’s Congress of the United States:

LADIES — The Chamber of Commerce of Nashville, Tenn., together with other official bodies of this city, beg very respectfully to tender herewith a most cordial and pressing invitation for your association to hold its annual meeting in 1896 in the city of Nashville, Tenn. We can assure you a most hearty and cordial welcome, and will use all possible exertion to make your stay among us pleasant, and we feel sure that the recollections of your visit to Tennessee will be a matter of pleasure both to yourselves and the people of our city. The many attractions and inducements that our state and city have to offer for the meeting here of different organizations of the country in our centennial year, 1896, are set forth in an accompanying circular. Trusting to have the pleasure of meeting with your association in our city next year, we remain,

Very respectfully,

NASHVILLE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, A.J. Harris, President, A.M. Willis, Secretary.



CITY or NASHVILLE, Office of the Mayor.

First Colored Women’s Congress of the United States, Atlanta, Ga.

LADIES — I take pleasure in endorsing the invitation extended by the Chamber of Commerce to your honorable body to hold your next annual meeting in this city during our centennial year. We will see that you receive a most cordial, hearty greeting, and that your stay shall not only be pleasant but profitable to all of you.

Very respectfully,




LADIES — The City Council of Nashville, Tenn., begs most heartily to unite in extending a most cordial invitation to your association to hold its annual convention in Nashville during our centennial year, 1896. We will receive you with open arms.


NASHVILLE CITY COUNCIL, H.S. Williams, President.




LADIES — The Board of Public Works of Affairs joins with His Honor, the mayor, in extending an invitation to meet in Nashville.

BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS OF AFFAIRS, George W. Stainbark, Chairman.



LADIES — The Tennessee Centennial begs to join most heartily in the foregoing invitations, and offers to your association every possible inducement to visit our beautiful city in 1896. We will open every door and hang the latchstring on the outside. Come and see us.

TENNESSEE CENTENNIAL, E.C. Lewis, Director-General.




To the National Congress of Colored Women of the United States, Greeting:

DEAR SISTERS — Appreciating the incalculable blessing your first congress will be in the cotton states in raising the status of womanhood, and desiring to augment that effort in the Central States during the Tennessee Centennial, which is to be held in this city beginning Sept. 1, 1896, continuing 100 days, we, the Colored Woman’s Centennial Committee, must cordially and earnestly invite you to hold your next congress with us, believing by so doing you will greatly enhance the recognition and value of true womanhood in the South.

ELLA S. MOORE, President, Sadie P. Burries, Secretary.


As the Atlanta Congress was intended only as a temporary gathering, but one that represented all parts of the country, the general understanding was that the people of Nashville interested in the coming centennial, being desirous of reaching

all our women, individuals as well as organizations, took this means of coming before the colored women of the country, particularly as there is ground for every hope at this time that all the various bodies of colored women of the country will merge into one grand organization that the entire country will respect. A council committee representing the National Colored Woman’s League and the National Federation of Afro-American Women, met, and after agreeing upon the basis of union to be submitted in joint convention next year, agreed as to the wisdom of meeting in Nashville, and will doubtless urge a full attendance on the part of the bodies in question on that occasion in the hope of final union of all forces. Mrs. Thurman, chairman of the Atlanta Congress being most enthusiastic in favor of union of all forces.


The gathering was very harmonious, and takes its place as one of the most notable gatherings ever convened in Atlanta. It proved a revelation to colored and white alike, and will serve as a strong argument as to woman’s power in pointing the way to needed reforms in the future in the south. Unlike most gatherings of the kind in which our women take part, everyone was on the alert and quick at repartee. Some of the brightest women of the country were present, and many excellent papers were read and discussed.

There were three sessions daily, all well attended. The south will be greatly benefitted [sic] benefited by the object lesson indicated by this gathering. It will have a most beneficial effect upon our women, who, heretofore, have never advanced to the front save through religious channels ; indeed, have taken but little stock in such undertakings. If the women of the south have been indifferent, it has been through lack of experience, and, likely, confidence in the ultimate good to be accomplished by such movements. As a rule our women of all sections have been discouraged by our men in any and all attempts at public work, the result being lack of real progressiveness all around. It was a splendid gathering. Many of those who labored for the First National Convention of Colored Women in Boston last summer were present and labored zealously for the good of the Congress. Judging by the general conduct of the delegates, the attendance, and the quality of the papers read, too much praise cannot be bestowed.

At great expense and personal sacrifice, delegates came from parts remote, and be it said to the credit of all concerned, that with but one or two exceptions, all participating preceded upon most liberal grounds. The women were thoroughly in earnest, as will be shown by the resolutions, which are claimed by some leading Atlanteans, both black and white, to have been the backbone of the Congress, and in every way fitting.

Sample copies of the WOMAN’S ERA were scattered freely at every session, many declaring themselves highly pleased with its appearance and promising support from the January number. As is usual is such affairs, the expenses attendant upon visiting the exposition were exceedingly great. No effort was made to secure any very great reductions in board for the delegates, this constituting one of the most unpleasant features. But a beginning has been made in the south where the great masses are, and that beginning is of such character that we are sanguine that ere long we will all see one magnificent body of women, with their hearts inflamed with the common intent to uplift one struggling race.

Many prominent men of both races visited the sessions, many making short speeches. Hon. I. Garland Penn, Dr. E.W.E. Bowen, Dr. Thirkield, President of Gammon Theological School, Hon. J.C. Napier, Prof. Booker T. Washington, of Tuskegee, Bishops Turner, Grant and Gains, Dr. Jennifer, Prof. R.R. Wright, T. Thomas Fortune, Mrs. Thompson of Syracuse, zealous worker for S.P.A., and Sister Jane Moore of Little Rock were among many others.

Bostonians will remember Mrs. Dr. Butler, of Atlanta, who fairly captivated the hearts of the National Federation of Afro-American Women last summer. Her address of welcome was in every way worthy the impression she then made. The response was made by Mrs. Rosetta Lawson, who from the beginning has labored indefatigably for the success of the Congress.

Our old friend, Mrs. Pitts of St. Louis, the “Lafe Pence” of the Boston meeting, fully sustained her reputation by supporting all practical measures.

Mrs. B.T. Washington, Mrs. Fannie Barrier Williams, and Prof. Mary V. Cook attracted especial attention.

The chairman, Mrs. Lucy Thurman, who represented the W.C.T.U. at the late World’s Conference in England, and Mrs. T.H.L. Lyles, who has been laboring for many years for the erection of a suitable monument to John Brown’s memory, proved themselves to be powerful extemporaneous speakers.

Mrs. Lyles has given several years to the work of raising funds for a monument as aforesaid, having secured an act of incorporation for the John Brown Monument Association under the laws of the State of Minnesota, and filing a bond for $10,000, has by her unceasing efforts and most laudable zeal attracted the attention of the governor of her state, who pledges practical and important interest, providing she is able to raise a certain amount. It was the sense of the Congress that we stand more in need of institutions, educational and reformatory, than a marble tribute to show our esteem. The proposition was made to purchase, establish and maintain a home farm, for dependent and helpless children, in that section raising the most money for the memorial. Mrs. Lyles has had her heart set for years upon a monument, but showed her unselfishness by accepting the verdict of the Congress as her will. It is a glorious augury for our future, to know that we have in our ranks at this time such women as Mrs. Lyles. The Congress stands pledged to support the movement, and the WOMAN’s ERA will open its columns to all who wish to aid the cause.

Mrs. J. St. Pierre Ruffin’s absence was a source of great disappointment. Many looked for Mrs. Helen Cook and others who helped to make the First National Convention of Colored Women famous. Many of them not otherwise represented sent most excellent papers. Mrs. Ella L. Mahammit’s was read by Mrs. Rosetta Lawson.

At the adjournment, flowers were presented to the chairman and secretary.


Mrs. Arthur S. Gray

It is the verdict of nine-tenths of the visitors to the exposition that the Negro building is one of the chief and most creditable displays. About the doors of the building the bust of Frederick Douglass, representing the capabilities of the Negro race, of a typical Negro slave, showing from whence we came, agricultural implement, musical instruments, scrolls, globes, etc., showing the advancement made along the different lines.

Entering the building you are confronted by the District of Columbia exhibit. The fancy work is inclosed [sic] enclosed in glass cases, and on either side of the aisle are musical and photographic displays. The work of the Art Amateur Society has received much praise. The most attractive feature of the District exhibit is a statue six feet high on a pedestal three feet high. It is the work of W.C. Hill and represents the condition of the Negro today, “Chains Broken but Not Off.” It is a representation of a typical Negro, large and muscular, struggling to free himself of the effects of slavery. This piece of work has received favorable comment for the originality of design and its splendid execution. A combination centre table, work table, and writing desk by H.A. Jackson has received highest praise. Mrs. M.A. Langston received a bronze medal for her embroidery and upholstering.

The patents of Negro inventors from the U.S. Patent Office are showing what the Negro is doing along that line. Since 1883 more patents have been granted to Negroes than before. There are to be found agricultural, electrical and mechanical patents. Congressman Murry has several agricultural inventions and Granville T. Wood has many electrical inventions.

The oldest patent granted to a Negro was in 1845, on a gridiron.

Hampton Normal and Industrial School has the finest grade of work in the building. The academic work is represented by a large screen, showing methods and results in teaching geography, history and sociology. A handsome mahogany tile-faced mantel, a handsome hall seat of oak with hand carving, a revolving bookcase, and a mahogany sideboard would do credit to any exhibit. The harness exhibited is all handmade. The institute fills orders for Wanamaker. They

have constant demand for all articles made by them.. A 100-pound trotting buggy and a small pony phaeton showed skill in wheelwright work. The drill press 28-inch swing, from the Pierce machine shop, shows work such as is manufactured regularly for the market.


The Negro press is represented by thirty-five journals the chief ones being the Colored American of Washington and the Daily Opinion of Atlanta.

Kentucky is represented by a photographic and statistical display. The pastels in this exhibit are exceptionally good. The kindergarten work from Louisville is among the best on the grounds. The Louisville National Medical School is represented by photographs.

A neat exhibit has been fitted up by the Board of Missions for Freedmen, showing by photographs the schools and churches established by them. Their statistics show 175 ministers, of whom 166 are colored, and 306 churches. They have schools in fourteen states and territories [ – ] of Charles Sumner, by Miss Ed- [ – ] in this space and Collegiate Institute of Claremont Va., under Rev. J.J. Smallwood, [ – ] is doing a great work, as is shown by his exhibit. His booth is tastefully arranged with pictures and needle work.

A neater and more attractive exhibit cannot be found than that of the True Reformers of Richmond and Lynchburg. It is a pictorial exhibition of the buildings owned by the organization. It is a benevolent and banking organization owned and controlled by Negroes since its foundation in 1881. It has a membership of 30,000 with $850,000 benefits paid. In 1893 it was the only bank in Richmond which continued to pay currency to its depositors during the financial stringency. The organization recently paid W.W. Brown, the founder, $50,000 for the plans by which it is run.

The agricultural exhibits from North Carolina are the finest in the building. A miniature coffin, handmade harness, tobacco, crayon work, and a log cabin plush quilt, valued at $500, are all creditable exhibits.

Florida has a characteristic exhibit, beautiful flowers, fine needle work, industrial work, collections of sea weed, sponges, corals and miniature ships. The most striking article in this exhibit is a hand-carved cabinet made of five different kinds of Florida wood. The literary, industrial and mechanical work of the State Normal at Tallahassee are very good.

The women of Memphis and Jacksonville, Tenn., have very good exhibits. Central Tennessee College has an exhibition of work done by students taxidermy, entomology, dentistry, and pharmacy. The botanical display is well arranged.

Fisk University has portraits of faculty, students and grounds. A large oil painting of the Original Fisk Jubilee Singers adorns their space.

Knoxville College has an industrial and literary exhibit.

Arkansas has a display of grains that are very fine quality. An engine weighing 700 pounds and carrying 100 pounds of steam is exhibited. An oil painting from an original Arkansas cotton field, painted by Dr. J.H. Smith of Little Rock, is among the best paintings. George Jones of Little Rock has an exhibition of some of his fifty houses, one drug store, one livery stable, and an undertaking establishment. The printing department of Philander Smith College has very artistic work.

Virginia collective exhibit occupies a very large space with exceptionally good work from the Old Dominion. Some of the most attractive exhibits are a 124-pound ball-bearing buggy, miniature model of the United States steamer Raleigh, hand-carved colonial chairs, compartment tool chest, relief maps of North and South America and Virginia.

G.R. Devane of the South Carolina exhibit has some artistic carvings on canes and horns. He presented a horn to the President when he visited the Negro building. One cane has all the important events of the discovery of America, another is the presidential cane, with pictures of all the presidents carved on it. The photographic and crayon work in this space is very creditable.

The American Baptist Home Mission shows pictures of the faculties and buildings. It also gives the following statistical report for 1895: 1,600,000 colored Baptists, 29 schools, 232 teachers, of whom one-third are colored; schools at Lynchburg, theological school at Richmond, two schools, One for boys and one for girls, at Atlanta, one law, one medical, one trained nurse, the missionary training and two high-grade normals.

In the miscellaneous space are exhibits from Ohio, New York, Kansas, Michigan, Louisiana,

Missouri and Pennsylvania. A painting of Charles Sumner and a violin and sheet of music in oils, by Mrs. Lottie Jackson of Michigan, are acknowledged among the best in the building.


Tanner’s famous “Bag-pipe Lesson,” Banjo Lesson,” and “Lion’s Head” are the best paintings in the building. Tanner is at present abroad studying art.

The Negro authors are well represented. Among the prominent ones are: “Black Phalanx,” by J.T. Wilson; “Africa and America,” by Alexander Crummell, D.D.; “Our Baptist Ministers and Schools,” by A.W. Pegnes; “From Virginia Plantation to the United States Capitol,” by Jno. M. Langston; “The AfroAmerican Press,” by I. Garland Penn; “William Lloyd Garrison and Charles Sumner,” by Archibald Grimke; “Aunt Lindy,” by Victoria Earle; “The New Man,” by H.C. Bruce; “The Underground Railroad,” by William Still; “Women of Distinction,” by Jno. Scruggs; “History of the Negro Race,” by George Wiliams; “Outlines of History,” by Tanner; “Poems of Frances E.W. Harper,” and numerous books of fiction, religion and hymnals.

Morgan College is represented by a model of the college and by samples of literary and industrial work.

Gammon Theological Seminary has a neat photographic exhibit. Gammon is the best endowed theological school for Negroes in the country. It has seventy-one students and its professors are all highly educated men. Dr. J.W.E. Bowen, orator of Negro day, is a professor at this school. An autograph of Harriot Beecher Stowe, written for Gammon School, July 7, 1895, and one of John Greenleaf Whittier, written May 19, 1881, are exhibited at this space.

The Atlanta University exhibit thoroughly represents the work done there. It gives it college, normal, preparatory and manual training course. The work exhibited in higher mathematics, classical translations, mechanical drawings and tintings are exceptionally good. The wood turning and iron work is also very fine.

Clark University has a well-arranged exhibit. The carriage, dressmaking and laundry departments have representative work that attracts much attention. The Thayer Home, at Clark, is modeled after a real home and is furnished with all modern improvements. It accommodates twenty young ladies, who are taught cooking and housekeeping as practised in well-kept homes.

Spelman Seminary, under the Baptist Home Mission, has a training school for nurses. The model sick room, showing the care of the room, costume of the nurses, surgical instruments, sick charts, etc., all are very attractive. The literary and fancy work of the school are very tastefully arranged. In the early history of the school, when several thousand dollars had been raised, Mr. Rockefeller came to the relief of the school and gave $56,500. The school was named Spelman Seminary in honor of Mr. Spelman, the father of Mrs. Rockefeller, who was for forty years a steadfast friend of the Negro race.

The Missionary Training Department has had two graduating classes. Among those who have gone to Africa are Misses Nora A. Gordon, Clara A. Howard, and Lena F. Clark, a native African.

The Atlanta Baptist Seminary for young men has an attractive exhibition of their literary work, bound with the photographs of each class. The vertical system of writing is used in this school with much success.

The Georgia State and Industrial College for Boys at Savannah has a manual training, scientific, normal and complete college course. A carpenter’s compartment chest is one of their best exhibits. Their wood turning and iron work are very creditable.

An institution which stands as a monument of Negro thrift and enterprise is the Morris Brown College at Atlanta. It was founded and built by the A.M.E. churches of the state of Georgia. It has no endowment, no permanent fund, and is controlled and supported by the people of that church in the state. They have 450 students and 12 teachers. The courses taught are preparatory, normal, collegiate, law, theology, music and industry. The school is but ten years old.

The Carrie Steele’s Orphan Home was begun five years ago with five little orphan boys without a dollar. Today she has a beautiful home of thirteen rooms, four acres of land, two cows and two horses. She has seventy-one orphans whom she gives a common education and a knowledge of general housework. Their exhibit consists of fancy needlework, products of their farm, and canned goods, all the work of the orphans.

Bishop Turner’s African exhibition of instruments of war, native cotton, baskets, heads, and cloth woven by the natives, is a curiosity. A

duplicate quilt of the one given to Queen Victoria by Martha Ricks of Monrovia is exhibited. It is made of green, red and white satin, representing the coffee tree in bloom.


Peter Dillard, a mantel builder, of Atlanta, has the finest tile mantel exhibited on the grounds. It is of rose-colored tiling and cost one hundred and sixty dollars.

A.J. Delbridge, an anatomical boot and shoe maker, has a splendid exhibit of boots and shoes.

Among the many interesting exhibits in the Georgia collective space are a photographic display of the Queen City Real Estate Co. of Columbus, Ga., organized in 1890, with a capital stock of $5,000, a 100-pound buggy made of Georgia material, a tobacco display, and the botanical and literary exhibit from the Haines Normal and Industrial School at Augusta, conducted by Miss Lucy Laney. Miss Laney is one of the most energetic women of the race in the South. She has many Northern friends who contribute largely to the [ – ] support of her school. [ – ] canned fruits, preserves, jellies, pickles, vinegars and unfermented wines in fancy glass jars and bottles, artistically arranged on stands. This exhibit was prepared by Mrs. Rosa Morehead Bass and received a bronze medal. Her exhibit has nearly a hundred different kinds and has been bought by Edward Atkinson, inventor of the Aladdin oven.

A biblical quilt, representing Jacob’s dream, Cain killing Abel, the crucifixion, the baptism of Christ, the holy family, and other biblical stories, was made by an old lady who could not read but had heard these stories read.

The Georgia women have exhibited fine needlework, china-painting, drawing, millinery, cooking, and almost every line of work.

Alcorn University of Mississippi has a large space filled with the industrial and agricultural products of the school. The needlework is very creditable.

Alabama collective exhibit has a good display of paintings, drawing, needlework and photography. A large space is used by the Anniston Drug Company. The Hale Infirmary of Montgomery is represented by a model and pictures of the building.

The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute is the centre of attraction at the Negro building; in fact, nine-tenths of the visitors ask for it as soon as they enter the building. Tuskegee has the largest space, and is more compactly filled. The institution is fourteen years old, has five hundred students and seventy-one teachers. They have eighteen hundred acres of land, six hundred under cultivation, and teach twenty-eight industries. Last year the total enrollment was 1,025. They raise all the vegetables and grains used by the school. A photographic display shows the buildings of the Institute, the shops, residences and interior of the different departments. The system of basting in the dressmaking department is very fine. The tailoring department furnishes clothes for some of the best people in the city. A handsome oak, hand-carved bedroom suite, two-seated phaeton, piano-body buggy, pony phaeton, two horse wagon, boots and shoes, tinware, dairy articles, printing, wheelwright, bricks, etc., compose the bulk of the exhibit.

The drawing and designing [ – ] departments [ – ] Industrial School at Normal, [ – ] was one of the neatest exhibits in the building. The work from the dressmaking, laundry, wheelwright, cabinet, domestic and broommaking departments is of a very fine quality. The winding stairs exhibited are specimens of superior work. One of the students invented a cotton press, and a dozen bales of cotton from this press are shown.

In the centre of the building, under the tower, is in exhibit from Butler, Slater & Co., Pioneer Negro Druggists of Georgia. This booth is artistically decorated and well filled with perfumes, tooth powder, soup and toilet articles, all made by the company.

Howard University stands for higher education. The photographic exhibit of the buildings and grounds is very creditable. The statistical report, showing 1,402 graduates in the different departments, speaks well for the school. Much care has been taken in the selection of the natural history and chemical exhibits. The sewing cannot be excelled by any work in the building. The normal and printing departments have large exhibits.

There are about fifty well-educated men find women in this building who have charge of the exhibits and are thoroughly informed in the work they represent. All of them have labored hard for the success of the Negro building and the exposition.

The exhibition of the Negro at Atlanta has done much toward opening the eyes of the world as to the capabilities and accomplishments of the race. Many who opposed the exhibit at first are now frank to say that they are sorry they did not lend their support. The people and the press have been unanimous in their praise of this worthy effort. It serves as an inspiration to those who have lost hopes of the Negro accomplishing anything in this country. And yet, we are safe in saying, that this exhibit did not consist of the best work done by the race nor did it have the support of one-third of the influential people in the respective sections.


What might we not have done had we united support?


Elizabeth Piper Ensley

A glance backward causes us to rejoice over the gains Woman Suffrage has made in this and other countries during the past year. Utah makes the third star in our suffrage flag, and South Australia has fully enfranchised its women. That public sentiment is growing in this direction is evident, since a Woman Suffrage amendment has been submitted to the constitution by the state legislatures of New York, Oregon, Idaho, Nevada and California. Can the result of the vote on the referendum in Massachusetts be discouraging, when one out of every three men and twenty-five out of every twenty-six women, who expressed their opinions on the question, were in favor of equal suffrage? State suffrage societies have been organized in Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Nevada, Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, West Virginia and Delaware. We hope for splendid results the coming year.

The exercise of suffrage stimulates women to venture outside of the narrow circle in which they formerly worked. I recently had an interview with a lady who was an active worker in our suffrage campaign, and who is now president of the Bonita Cold and Silver Mining Company, an organization officered by women. She said:

“You ask me how I first came to think of the ‘Woman’s Mine.’ I hardly know just when the idea took shape and crystallized into its present form. My mother was the ‘Lady Bountiful’ of our village, and after I grew to womanhood, my personal experience brought home to me the need of some business making it possible for women of the most limited means to invest in something which would bring them quick, sure and steady returns; this, too, without leaving home and children, or whatever work they might be doing for a livelihood. It was really the result of observation, brought by my work for universal suffrage. An instance which came under my notice some years ago will make it clear.

“A woman from Illinois invested quite largely in one of the best mines in Colorado. When it began to pay handsomely, the other owners, all men, decided to ‘freeze her out,’ in mining parlance. They made false reports, — no ore, etc. — finally shut down and stopped work; but the lady did not ‘freeze out’ and having money as well as courage, compelled the other owners to divide and treat her fairly.

“I thought then, ‘Why not have a woman’s mine?’ Today I offer you that in the Bonita Gold and Silver Mining Company, organized in New Mexico and Colorado.

“Some years ago I asked my husband to give me a mine to manage myself. He said that he would. Occasionally I would ask, ‘Where is my mine?’ He would say, ‘Wait till I get it in good shape.’ Last October, in the midst of the excitement preceding the election, when every woman I wanted to see was canvassing for the different parties, my husband handed me the deed to the Bonita, saying, ‘Here is your mine; the deed is recorded, title absolute and without flaw, not one dollar of indebtedness, patent work all done, ready to make the application, with nearly eight thousand dollars’ worth of work done as carefully and economically as I could do it; apex on every claim, with timber, water and all that makes a first class property, and now within about fifty feet of an immense body of ore, running from fifty to one thousand dollars to the ton, the average two hundred and fifty. A mine! Not a mere prospect at the grass roots.

“‘Now see what you can do as a woman’s company. If you can keep six men steadily at work, you ought to have pay in from sixty to ninety days.’

“This I want to do. We need only about five thousand dollars for patents and all, after which we expect to pay a dividend and that from that time the mine will pay its own expenses.

“I am charmed with the ERA. A glance at it shows its status and scope. It has finely gotten up in all respects – its personal appearance, very distinct individuality, the pictures, and the ability with which it is edited. It is inferior to none of the woman’s journals which I have read and excels many.”


Attention is called to the announcement of the N.E. Farm Agency. The manager of the movement is well endorsed, and the scheme is worthy the careful consideration of those to whom it appeals, as one of great possibilities for any one looking for a home among friendly surroundings.


THE WOMAN’S ERA, the organ of the National Federation of Afro-American Women, and devoted to the Interests of the Women’s Clubs, Leagues and Societies throughout the country.

Published monthly, in Boston, by JOSEPHINE ST. P. RUFFIN, FLORIDA R. RIDLEY, 103 Charles Street.


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In the interest of the of the race, [ – ] of the space [ – ] to Atlanta, [ – ] and Woman’s Congress. Both these are events which go to make up history and demand more than passing attention.

The attitude of the ERA on the question of a “Negro exhibit” is well known. It has been open to conviction. We did not believe it possible to make a Negro exhibit that was truly representative; that the interests of the races are so amalgamated its to be impossible to separate them to make an exhibit that would show the present status of the race. More than this we feared and realized the possibility of attendant evils and personal mortifications for which nothing in the way of an imposing exhibit could compensate. At the same time we realized that many of our most thoughtful people endorsed the movement and saw in it a large opportunity. The results are before the reader. The separate exhibit attracted much attention and favorable comment. The Colored Woman’s Congress brought together a large number of progressive women and gave an additional impetus to the woman’s movement, beside opening up possibilities for the future.

The Congress held by our women at Atlanta was a notable one, not only in its personal make-up, but also in the value of the work that was done — the subjects discussed, the papers read. It was not, however, the first congress; that held in Boston last July enjoys that distinction. Our women have caught the fever, and there is everything good to be hoped for in their efforts toward union and concentration.


One Of the editors of The Christian Educator, the organ of the Freedman’s Aid and Southern Education Society, has been at some pains to locate and learn something definite of the man Jacks, who wrote the shameful letter to Miss Balgarnie of England in March last. Letters of inquiry were sent to prominent people of Missouri, and some of the answers are given in the Educator. No names are mentioned by the Educator. Following is one of the replies:

“Mr. —– is the editor of a paper here. He is a member of the —– Church in this town, and the Sunday School superintendent. I learn he is the son of an ex-slave holder of this state. There are several of the leading colored men of this town and country that are subscribers to Mr. —–‘s paper, and he has never printed a disrespectful word in his paper here against the colored people.”

The Educator adds: “It is safe to say, from what is known of the man, that he would never be even courageous enough to print the whole letter in his own paper, and look his neighbors in the face the same week.”

We are indebted to the kindness of De Wolfe, Fiske & Co., publishers of the “Life and Times of Frederick Douglass,” for the loan of the fine cut of Mr. Douglass presented in this number of the ERA.


The friends of equal rights owe a deep debt of gratitude to the Man Suffrage Association for the impetus their organized opposition to Woman Suffrage as given to that cause. Not for many years has so much interest and enthusiasm been shown in the annual meetings of the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association as in those held in Association Hall the week ending January 18. The hall was filled at all times, and crowded in the evenings. The ranks of the workers for this cause are being largely augmented by enthusiastic young women and men from the different colleges. Harvard, Yale, Tufts and Wellesley all were well represented in these meetings by lucid, logical and speakers. But it re-

mained for John Graham Brooks to make the most assertively convincing argument on “Some Economic Aspects of the Woman Question” ever advanced in this section. This speech should be printed and scattered broadcast.



These conventions are revelations. Through them the colored women are discovering their strength and possibilities, and through them the outside world has been led to see a condition so promising, so encouraging as to be almost inconceivable. Nashville at once recognized the power and possible influence of so significant a body, and through its mayor and council has extended a courteous invitation for its next meeting to be held there.



An interesting event is the approaching marriage of Miss Marion Ridley of this city to Dr. Milton Brown of Baltimore. Miss Ridley is one of the younger set of Boston girls and has a large circle of acquaintances in the eastern cities. Dr. Brown is a recent conspicuous graduate of the Harvard Medical School who has settled in Baltimore and is taking a graduate course at Johns Hopkins. Nowadays, it is comparatively seldom that we find a couple marrying, neither of whom has reached the age of twenty-five.

The Dumas Quartet, composed of Messrs. Woodward, Ruffin, Hodges and Johnson seems still a long-felt want. Since the formation this Quartet has been in active demand and deservedly so. All of the voices are picked and each young man is a thorough musician.

Miss Edna Brown is enjoying a position at Ditson’s, music publishers. This is very appropriate and she is to be congratulated.

The death of Richard H. Lewis, son of the late J.D. Lewis of Philadelphia and grandson of the late R.H. Brown, is the third recent death among the young men, which has been more or less of a shock to the community. Young Lewis was a promising student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was preparing upon his graduation in the spring to go to South Africa as a civil engineer. He and his sister, Miss Louise Lewis, lived together in loving companionship. His death was a great shock to her and leaves her almost without relationship. The funeral was largely attended and the details were of much elegance. The floral tributes from classmates, clubmates, and individual friends were markedly beautiful. The death of a young man of so much promise is not only a loss to his friends, but a loss to the community as well.

Mr. John Ransom of Ohio made a visit to Boston during the holidays, much to the surprise and pleasure of his large circle of friends.

The holidays also brought home the schoolgirls and boys: Miss Hemmings of Vassar College, Miss Baker of Wellesley, Miss Marv Lewis from Bradford, Mr. Harry Lewis from Bradford were all in the city for a two week’s vacation.

Miss Maud Trotter is at home from Wellesley threatened with an attack of nervous prostration.

A very successful “small and early” managed by Mrs. J.H. Lewis, was held at Arcade Hall on the 7th.

Many of the Old Guard Abolitionists were among those who gathered at Faneuil Hall on the evening of Dec. 20th to take part in the memorial services, held under the auspices of the city of Boston to the honor of the late Frederick Douglass. They heard a splendid eulogy by Judge Albion W. Tourgee, some interesting reminiscences from Prof. Richard T. Greener of New York, and some fine vocal music from the Dumas Quartet. After the meeting the city fathers entertained the orators, Mrs. Frederick and Mr. Lewis Douglalss, Mrs. Colonel Thomas of Portland, Me., and the WOMAN’S ERA representative at a banquet at the Parker House, and with a drive over the whole park system the next morning.

The invitation to the silver wedding of Mr. and Mrs. Frederick J. Loudin is the handsomest of its kind ever received. The celebration took place at “Otra,” the luxurious home of the couple on Walnut Street, Ravenna, Ohio, on the evening of Jan. 9, 1896.

N.B. – Mrs. T.H.T. Lyles of St. Paul, Minn., and Mrs. Lucy Thurman of Jackson, Mich., and one other lady gave Mrs. Victoria Matthews one dollar for a year’s subscription to the Woman’s Era. While in Atlanta, owing toa slight attack of illness while the Congress was in session, the third lady’s name was lost. Will she communicate with the ERA?

Invitations are hereby acknowledged to the Vandeville’s last “At Home”; to the Starr Club’s reception in Oxford Hall, Lynn; to the annual exhibition of water colors by Walter L. Chaloner at the Bostonia Club House; to the first anniversary exercises of the Sons of Freedmen, Norfolk, Va.

Miss Annie Dillet of Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas, has just graduated from the New England Hospital for women and children with an excellent record for both character and acquirements. She has not fully decided whether to follow her profession in Boston or return to her old home. It is believed by the hospital authorities she will do good services in either place. She will register at the Nurse’s Bureau while here.


Anna H. Jones

By Anna H. Jones

[ – 4 words] the Negro exhibit?” is the [ – 2 words] the day, at home and abroad; in the crowded street car and the noisy train; between the recitations of bright, inquisitive pupils, and in the confidential chat at one’s own fireside.

I wonder if it will be accounted heresy to say that one’s replies are as varied as are the circumstances of the question.

After a prolonged tour of the Negro building, a feeling of self-congratulation takes possession of us, based partially upon what we have seen, partially upon what we feel could have been there. The feeling formulates itself in some such words as these, “If this result of Negro intellect and industry is a marvel to the civilized world, how much more would that world wonder if it could see all that the race really has accomplished.” We think of the fine work in [ – 1 word] lines, that is not shown; of the designs and architectural work of several colored civil engineers who compete with the best in the land and whose work knows no color line; we think of the colored dressmakers whose patrons are the wealthy and fashionable of both races; of the tailors, the milliners, the caterers, the skilled mechanics scattered through the land; we think of the numerous women artists, with their decorated china, their crayon portraits, their wood carving, their work in oils and water-colors; very little of it was shown.

We think of the many homes of wealth and culture in the east, west, north and south, with their beautiful and artistic surroundings, but whose very refinement prevents public exhibition.

While their [sic] there is much, that from its very nature, could not have been shown, more could have been exhibited had there been unanimity of sentiment, but of that which is itself a result of race development, it is useless to speak here.

Another thought expressed itself — the exhibit was largely a school exhibit. We felt that there we were getting the best that could be shown. There were the leven that was infusing itself through the Southland.

One could not help seeing much that was crude, much that might have been omitted and we were not surprised when told that many articles had to be denied admittance. We felt that we might have spared some of the patchwork and a few of the photographs.

There was much, very much, to admire, but many words of commendation have been spoken and will continue to be spoken, and this thought of “what might have been” is not intended to be a discordant note in the chorus of praise, but to voice a feeling that must have come to many. To the commissioner and his assistants much credit is due for giving us, that fine average of Negro accomplishments.

Tile Ladies’ Whist Club held its formal opening with a high class reception several weeks since, and will entertain bi-monthly for the remainder of the season.

The lady commissioners appointed to represent Missouri in the Women’s Congress held in Atlanta were as follows: ‘Mrs. Libbie E Anthony, Jefferson City, Miss Florence Smith, Kansas City, Miss Georgia De Baptiste, Macon City, Miss Luvenia Cartel, St. Louis, J.S. Yates, Kansas City.

By special request the following papers were prepared and read before the Congress: “Social Purity,” Mrs. Libbie C. Anthony; “How Best to Raise the Moral Status of the Race,” J.S. Yates.

The Future State, a monthly journal of Negro progress, for December, is a most excellent number. Mr. Paul Gaston contributes a translation from original French manuscripts. Mrs. Lynwood, wife of the editor, writes on “Negro Education in the South,” with her usual force and earnestness.


Mary Church Terrell


Through Miss Carrie E. Syphax the industrial department of the colored schools of Washington has been highly complimented. As the directress of the sewing department, Miss Syphax has developed such an excellent course of instruction and has been so successful in pursuing it, that competent judges rate her among the most efficient teachers of sewing in the country. She was recently invited to send specimens

of her work to Buffalo, N.Y., into whose public schools sewing is soon to be introduced. The invitation was accepted by Miss Syphax, in whose care the work was sent. In the beautiful and spacious ball room of the Waldorf Hotel the exhibit was held, and there it was that Miss Syphax achieved a great triumph as a directress of sewing. Praises for the excellence of her work were heard on all sides, and congratulations were showered upon her by the most competent judges of this branch of instruction. The Woman’s Educational and Industrial Union, under whose auspices Miss Syphax went, volunteered not only to pay for the transportation of the articles from Washington, but also to defray all the expenses of Miss Syphax if she would come to explain her work. The exhibit represented every branch of the work as carried on in our schools.


The Washington branch of the Colored Woman’s League has decided to give monthly socials, in order to create a deeper interest in its work and aims. The first social was held in the Berean Baptist Church and was a signal success. Miss Ednorah Nabar, popular elocutionist, made an interesting and instructive talk. Several vocal and instrumental selections were rendered. To the indefatigable energy and good taste of Mrs. A.F. Hilyer is the success of this first effort in a great measure to be ascribed. Miss Ella Barrier has charge of the new social.


Sada J. Anderson

The members of the Lookout Circle of King’s Daughters, who are ever on the qui vive have invitations out for a leap year party. Mrs. Dickinson, general secretary of the order, says that of all the great organizations that have arisen in the past fifteen years, not one is more beautiful in spirit, broader in its scope, or better calculated to do good service for [ – word] man than our beloved order. She is right. The wearer of the little silver cross finds a welcome everywhere, as she goes forth on her mission of love.

In the pathway of the King
All the world is wakening.

The Henrietta Circle was entertained by Mrs. George Remley at its literary meeting last week. The program was very interesting, and was made more so by readings from Mliss Mary Dyer, who is fast gaining a reputation as an elocutionist of whom Toledo feels exceptionally proud. Mrs. John D. Stewart, nee Miss Adah Olivia Brown, formerly of Chicago, but now an addition to Toledo’s literary circle, also gave a very fine reading. The Henrietta Circle entertains friends once each month, and at each of its public literary meetings it shows that the members are doing telling work. We patiently await the next meeting.


Fannie Barrier Williams

At high noon, on Dec. 18th, I beautiful wedding of more than local interest occurred in Chicago. The bride is the only daughter of Mrs. Lavinia Lee and the one living granddaughter of Mrs. Mary Jones and the late John Jones of this city. The fortunate groom, Dr. William Whipper Purnell of Washington, D.C., is the only son of Miss Julia Purnell of Washington and the late James Purnell of Camden, N.J.

The bride has bad education and culture, advantages beyond the reach of most American girls. For several years she has pursued the study of vocal and instrumental music to the point of fine attainments in both. Along with her musical accomplishments she is endowed with a delicate artistic taste and has done much clever work with brush and pencil as a pastime.

The groom, Dr. Purnell, is a young physician of established practice in Washington and a social favorite in the east. He has had the very best of training and equipment for his profession.

The wedding was unique in its delightful freedom from ostentation. The scheme of color carried out both in house decorations and costumes was pink and white. The bride wore a heavy ivory satin, without train. The waist was trimmed with plaited white chiffon and heavily embroidered in pearls. Her veil was fastened with a diamond ornament, the gift of the groom. The maid of honor, Miss Elizabeth Seals of Cleveland, is a young lady of stately beauty and many social graces. She wore a beautiful and artistic gown of taffeta silk, Dresden design. The bridesmaids were the two prettycousins of the bride, Miss Etta Brown of Detroit and Miss Mabel Wheeler of this city. They were prettily costumed in mousseline de soie over pink silk and carried bridesmaid’s roses. The bride’s mother, Mrs. Lee, wore black satin trimmed with heliotrope velvet.

The groom was attended by Mr. Andrew J. Stevens of Philadelphia as best man, and Messrs. John Wheeler and George Gray of this city acted as groomsmen. The ceremony was performed by Rev. Richard DeBaptiste, who performed a similar service for the bride’s mother nearly a quarter of a century ago. Smiley’s service and Tomasso’s orchestra were among the details of this beautifully interesting occasion.

The wedding party left for Washington the same evening, where Dr. And Mrs. Purnell will permanently reside.

The week presiding the Lee-Purnell wedding occurred the marriage of Miss Gertrude Washington and the noted elocutionist, Mr. Richard B. Harrison. The wedding ceremony was performed by Rector Thomas at St. Thomas Episcopal Church in the presence of a host of admiring friends. The wedding was one of the social events of the season, and units a popular

pianist in the person of the bride, and one of our most gifted readers. The poet, Paul Dunbar, acted as best man.


After these brilliant wedding chimes an additional word will seem prosaic indeed, I cannot forbear, however, extending to all of my associate contributors to the ERA a most hearty New Year’s greeting. I am willing to confess that my meagre service in behalf of this Journal and reading the heart words or our women from all parts of the country, have been to me both a delight and an inspiration. A new and high sense of the value of associated interests must come to us all from this labor of love.


A.W. Clough, Governor

St. Paul, Minn., Dec. 24, 1895.
Colored Women’s National Congress, Atlanta.

[ – 3 words] citizens of the State of Minnesota have [ – 2 words] their hearty approval to the efforts of [ – 2 words] , the bearer hereof, in awakening an [ – 2 words] the efforts of the great and good John Brown; and as chief executive of the great State of Minnesota, I feel that the Negroes of this country could give no greater expression of their gratitude for such a man than in erecting a monument to his memory. Mrs. T.H. Lyles, of this state, has taken the initiative in such an effort, and I wish to commend her to this Congress as a woman worthy of the best support her race can give.

Very respectfully,

A.W. Clough, Governor.


So they are termed by Thomas Wallace Swan of Philadelphia in a long letter to the Woman’s Journal of this city, only extracts of which will space permit us to reprint. This is much to our regret, especially as it includes a long letter from Alexander Dumas, giving a Frenchman’s views on the legal disabilities of women. Mr. Swan says:

“Two of the most significant coincidences relative to great men and great movements happened in connection with the death of Frederick Douglass and Alexander Dumas, the world-famous writer of fiction.

“On the day of the death of Mr. Douglass he attended the Woman’s Rights Convention, then in session at Washington, where he made one of the most eloquent pleas of his career for the equal, civil and political rights of women. This was his last public utterance.

“About four days prior to the death of the younger Dumas, he addressed a letter strongly endorsing the movement to Madame Maria Szelya-Loevy, the leader of the Woman’s rights party in France.

“It is, indeed, a significant incident that two of the most brilliant public men of our time, both of them directly or indirectly connected with a proscribed race, should in their last moments throw the whole strength of their intellect and individuality in support of women, the most oppressed class in the world.”


We have received copies of many of the addresses made at the recent Congress of Women at Atlanta, Ga. The papers are all good, many of them exceptionally fine, and if our paper was only appreciated sufficiently well to return us three times the amount of cash it does monthly, we would make it three times as large us it now is and then be able and happy to print them all, that they might be preserved as a part of the history making of the age. In the collection there is the address of the president of the Women’s Auxiliary Committee, Mrs. Josephine Bruce, of Mrs. Rosette Lawson, secretary of same committee, who opened the Congress, the welcome speech of Mrs. Selena Sloan Butler, “A Mother’s Duty in the Home,” by Mrs. Sylvanie F. Williams, “How to raise the Moral Status of the Race,” by Mrs. Josephine S. Yates. Beside all those mentioned, there is on hand a large number of well written articles sent in by our regular correspondents which we are compelled to very much condense or leave out for this issue entirely. If it is considered that by so doing we have trenched on the rights of subscribers who may be more interested in other things than the Congress, our excuse must be our enthusiastic interest in the work our women are doing everywhere, and our desire to carefully record it for future reference. None of our male contemporaries can find space in their papers for this information. Their

columns are “so crowded” with patent matter, ghastly jokes on women, by would-be male wits with women’s front names, lists of tin dippers and pie plates received at tin weddings, etc. Sometime our women will come to realize that only through the columns of a paper controlled by themselves will the hard and beneficent work they are doing all the time be made known to the world, and so bring to them the respect and dignity they so richly deserve.



The best known preventive to consumption is climate, and it is generally conceded that Colorado has the best anti-consumption climate in America.

Hundreds come every year to Denver, hoping to prolong life or regain health; many of them do so who would otherwise meet an early death.

The climate of Denver, dry, pure and sunny, with its elevation of one mile above sea level, effectually cures all incipient lung diseases.

Therefore parents having children predisposed to lung trouble are advised to send them to Denver to pursue their studies.

The fine public schools and the Denver University afford unsurpassed educational facilities.

Mrs. Ensley will take into her home a limited number of girls and young ladies desiring to fret the benefit of the climate while attending school.

She will give special attention to home training and physical culture, particularly to chest expansion, diet and healthful dressing, while superintending their course at the public schools.

When private instruction is preferred the best teachers will be secured.

For further information address

1755 Ogden St., Denver, Col.

Refers by permission to Mr. Nathaniel T. Allen of West Newton English and Classical School.


You are interested in the advancement of the race and want to do something to help on the work? Then pass the paper along and urge your friends to subscribe. You can not do better work than this.

Any one sending a two-cent stamp will receive a sample copy of the ERA.





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Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
51 Court Street,
Near Scollay Square. BOSTON.


“His memory should be an inspiration to every colored man, and a warning to every white American that caste discrimination, whether it be the prop of slavery or other wrong, cannot long be justified by its resuIts.

“The difficulties that beset his life can never be duplicated in all the world’s life which is to be. One of the twin dragons of oppression has at least been slain. Slavery is no more. From the rising to the setting of the sun there is no place in any civilized land where oppression dare wear that name.”

HON. Albion W. Tourgee, At Douglass Memorial Service, Faneuil Hall, Boston, Dec. 20, 1895.




Will be glad to serve afternoon teas, spreads, wedding breakfasts and dinners, salads, croquettes, ice creams, ices and confections. Polite waiters. All orders promptly attended to. Will call to arrange for parties on receipt of Postal.
15 Bow Street, Cambridge.
Telephone 23-2.
27 Jerome Street, W. Medford.
Telephone, Arlington 27-2.


With good recommendations, for all branches of work in Private Families, Hotels and Boarding Houses supplied from
Office, 103 Revere St.. BOSTON.



Is prepared to give First Class Accommodations to a few boarders at reasonable rates at the old stand.
62 PhilIips St., Boston.


Our Dress and Garment making is perfect; Prices reasnable; Fit, Style, and Finish Unsurpassed.
Hats and Bonnets made and Trimmed, 50c. to $1.00
Our Millinery and Dress Cutting Schools are the best in the world. Young ladies should come at once and learn.
HARVEY, 29 Temple Place, Boston.


Artistic Dress Cutting and Making.
Also Corset Making by First Class and Terms Reasonable.
19 Brewery St., CAMBRIDGE.


Dressmaker and Fur Sewer.
Fur Cleansing and Repairing a Specialty. Best of References.
Work Solicited.


Fashionable Dressmaker.
Strictly First Class. Terms Reasonable.
Cutting and Basting by the M.E. Quinn System.


Attorney and Counsellor-at-Law
34 School Street, Boston. Room 22


Cambridge Cleansing and Repairing Establishment.
We clean by Steam and Naphtha. Dyeing in all its branches. Kid Gloves and Slippers Cleaned. Give us a Trial.
C.J. MOORE, 433 Main St.



Has a thorough and systematic course of study, including a complete system of Physical Training and Voice Culture, Natural Rendering, and the principles of the Philosophy of Expression. Scientific and practical work in every department. Chartered by the State.

Address for illustrated catalogue,
Corner Tremont and Berkeley Sts.,
Boston, Mass.
Summer session at Martha’s Vineyard.


156 Charles St., Boston.
Three doors from eye infirmary.
Artificial Eyes a Specialty.
Telephone, 1198 Haymarket.



The Bonita Cold and Silver Mining Company,
No Assessments. No Stock Holders’ Liabilities.

The Great Mineral Basin it Pitkin covers an area as large as that of Leadville, Aspen and Red Cliff combined. Professor Sadtler, of the Chair of Metallurgy and Mineralogy of the State School of Mines, speaking of this district, says: “This camp, with proper and systematic development, will be made a second Aspen, if not better.”

The output of the Leadville district has been, up to the present time, in value over $200,000,000; that of Red Cliff more than $35,000,000, and that of Aspen, $100,000,000, or more, and the mines of these places show no signs of exhaustion.

What, then, shall we expect of Pitkin and the Quartz Creek District, which has a mineral bearing area as large as these three districts combined, when so far the developments there have proved the mineral deposits to be fully as rich and extensive?

We can come to but one conclusion: Its wealth is limitless, and no more safe or profitable field for investment can be found.

The property of the Bonita Gold and Silver Mining Company consists of three groups, in all nine claims, or a little over ninety acres, located in the most favored portion of this great mineral basin. Special care has been taken in the selecting to cover apexes, timber and water, all of which are of such vital importance in any mining property, and the greater portion of it lies only from one-fourth to three miles away from the railroad and the town of Pitkin, with good, down-hill roads leading from every portion of it, accessible every day in the year.

The ore is high grade, netting from fifty to one thousand dollars per ton, average two hundred and fifty. The Company has undisputed title to the entire property, which is free from any incumbrance [sic] encumbrance, and will be kept so. Any further information will be cheerfully furnished by the

President, MARY E. PHELPS, or MRS. L. K. DANIELS, Secretary.




Is open to engagements with Societies, Churches, or Clubs, for the presentation of either one of the Musical or Dramatic Plays, Composed and Published by herself. For terms for the presentation of either of the following:

  • “Fun at a Boarding School”
  • “Love in Disguise, or Things are not What They Seem,”
  • “Leoni, the Gipsy Queen,”

Address: MADAME MARS, II Green Street, Brockton, Mass.

Too much cannot be said in praise of Mrs. De Los Mars, who possesses rare talent, both as a musician and as an authoress. She has written five Dramas, which have been presented to the public with grand success, both in Providence, R.I., Boston, and elsewhere. She has a very sweet voice, which holds and captivates her audience. Her singing as “Gypsy Queen” which she impersonates in her operetta was received with great applause. — Boston Herald



Collegiate and Normal Courses. Enlarged corps of teachers. Industrial training in domestic and mechanic arts, including printing. Instruction in both instrumental and vocal music and in elocution. High grade in every respect. A few deserving and needy students can be aided. Term begins Wednesday, October 2. For catalog, address President HORACE BUMSTEAD.



It is entirely original and is sure to satisfy a long felt want of young dressmakers, women who do their sewing at home, and those who anticipate learning the trade as the means of gaining a livelihood.

The book is self-teaching and can be used with any system or with paper patterns.

The order of arrangement places the rules where they will come in regular order for cutting and making a gown. In fact, the aim has been to make the work eminently practical for the average woman.

Liberal inducements to agents everywhere.

For further information and circulars, send stamp to

Mr. Elmer E. Casneau,
9 Greenwich St.,
Boston, Mass.


Condensed Milk Co.’s
Plain condensed (unsweetened) Milk Is the best known food for infants. Best article in the world for a cup of coffee. Sold in jars at the office, 2 1/2 Park Sq., Boston. Delivered three times per week.
I have used the plain condensed milk and found it worked like a miracle in transforming my weak, puny baby into a strong, plump one, after all other foods had failed.
10 Lindall Place, Boston.


Branch Store.
Nos. 13 and 15 Broadway Extension,
Boston, Mass.
Manufacturers of Clothes Wringers.
All kinds of Wringers and Swoopers Repaired. Orders by Mail promptly attended to.


New goods received by steamer every week. We never have an opening.
Always ready to show goods.
The old reliable house retains the same stand,
19 Temple Place, Boston.


Price, $15.00.
A useful and elegant present for ladies and gentlemen.
Over 100,000 in use.
Perfectly simple, practical, and durable.
No $100 machine can do better work.
Writes 77 characters. Capitals and small letters.
Never gets out of order. Perfect alignment always.
No instruction required.
Send for illustrated catalogue.
4 K Post Office quare, — Boston, Mass.



Will be opened June 1 to accommodate a few select boarders.
For terms address
P. 0. Box 45.



The First Edition has been nearly exhausted. An edition of 5000 is to be issued March 1st.

“Above all, let the negro know that the elevation of his race can come only and will come surely through the elevation of its women.” – Senator Geo. F. Hoar.

Miss Emma K. White, one of Chester’s most successful teachers, says: “The volume entitled The Work of the Afro-American Women [sic] Woman is a great success at this point.”

Miss Julia Songow, Germantown, Pennsylvania: “I have sold seventy-five copies of the Work of the Afro-American Woman within two weeks.”

Mrs. Jennie Euola Johnson of Trenton, N.J.: “I have been very successful in my canvass of The Work of the Afro-American Woman.”

Agents Wanted: General [ – 1 word] Offered.

Let [ – 4 words] desire to canvass during the summer, apply at [ – 7 words] of effort have already done well.

[ – 3 words] Red or Brown Cloth, 75 cents, White and Gold, $1.

Apply to Mrs. N.F. Mossell

1432 Lombard Street, Philadelphia, Pa.


A Soft, Pliable, Odorless Matting,
Warm in Winter, Cool in Summer.
An Ideal Sanitary Chamber Carpet
For All the Year Round.
Sews together and turns under.
Does not break or require binding.
No odors or germs or disease.
Insects do not trouble it.
Heavy furniture does not break it.
Double faced — double wear.
Artistic colors — stylish designs.
We cordially invite inspection.
Manufacturers and Patentees,
50 Essex St. (cor. Chauncy) Boston, Mass.


No. 1208 Pine Street, Philadelphia.


“Violets and Other Tales.”
A Collection of Short Stories and Poems.
By Alice Ruth Moore.
In Paper Covers, 50c.; Cloth, $1.00.
Apply to ALICE RUTH M00RE, 1924 Palmyra Street New Orleans, La.
Office of Woman’s Era, 103 Charles St., Boston.



Washington D.C., July 1, 1895

Furnishes instruction in the following departments and courses:

Theological, Medical, Dental, Pharmaceutical, Legal, College Preparatory, Normal, Musical, and Manual Training, including practice in carpenter shop, printing office, book bindery, tin shop and sewing school.

All students have the privilege of library and reading room without extra charge.

Tuition free in all courses except Medical Dental and Pharmaceutical.

Term opens September 18.

J.E. RANKIN, D.D., L.L.D., President.
J.B. Johnson, Secretary.