Volume 2, Number 7



The Woman’s Era.

Vol. II. No. 7.



A new department will be opened next month — Indiana, conducted by Lillian Thomas Fox, impersonator and dramatic reader, late of the Indianapolis Freeman. Mrs. Fox is now at Atlanta, Ga.

The last club to be admitted to the Federation is the Phyllis Wheatley, a report from which, by its able president, Mrs. Williams, appears in this issue.

So many fine papers come to us from the women of Kansas City. It is indeed unfortunate that we are not able to print them all. It is said that the literary centre is going west.

In the loss of her beautiful baby boy Mrs. Terrell has the sympathy and condolence of her host of friends and admirers.

Representatives from the different New England clubs will shortly hold a meeting for the purpose of forming a local federation to co-operate with and be a component part of the national organization formed in July last. The gathering will be in response to a call from the national vice president for New England, Mrs. M.A. Dickerson, and will probably be held in Newport, R.I. A number of the members of the Era Club will make this meeting the excuse for a trip to that beautiful city by the sea, which in the autumn is at its best and balmiest.

Mrs. Mathews, (Victoria Earl) president of the Woman’s Loyal Union of New York and Brooklyn, is in Boston visiting the Woman’s Era Club president. Mrs. Sada J. Anderson, of Toledo, Ohio, is expected soon as a guest in the same house, both she and Mrs. Mathews coming on for a consultation over ways and means for forwarding good works.

The next meeting of the Woman’s Era Club will be held in the parlors of the Cooley House, Saturday afternoon, Nov. 2. The first hour will be devoted to business, after which an informal reception will be held in honor of the visiting president of the W.L.U. of New York.

What promises to be a most interesting occasion is the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the United Daughters of Zion, Thursday evening, November 7, at Zion Church, when there will be congratulatory speeches, music, a collation, and other festive features. A most felicitous time is expected. This beneficent organization, in its fifty years of vigorous existence, has been a prime factor in the prevention of suffering and pauperism among colored people, and as such should receive public recognition.

The Mammy Pleasance, referred to by many of our exchanges, and our California correspondent, will be recognized by a few old Bostonians as the mother of Miss Emma Stewart, the adopted daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Peyton Stewart. Mr. Stewart had the distinction of starting and successfully carrying on the first gymnasium established in Boston, with the daughter as teacher of the small, select ladies’ class. Miss Stewart was greatly admired for her fine personal appearance and sweetness of disposition. All of the old girls will recall the good times at the Boylston Gym over the old Boylston Market, and the departure of the Stewart family to join Mrs. Pleasance in California, where one after another they passed away, a grandson being now the only survivor and heir-at-law to the great wealth accumulated by Mrs. Pleasance.

Miss Mabel Grant is organist at the newly organized Congregational Church, of which the Rev. Peter Stanford of Birmingham, EngIand, is pastor. The choir is made up of a large number of young people, and this, with the winsome sweetness of the pastor’s English wife, is of great potency in gathering a flock together at Berkeley Temple, where the services are temporarily held.

Old Southac, now Phillips St., is keeping pace with the rest of growing Boston. More activity is being displayed in improvements in that street of four short blocks than in any other of the same length in the city. Two school houses and two handsome new churches act as a spur to improvements by property owners on that historic thoroughfare.


Margaret Washington

Organized in Boston, Mass., July 31, 1895.

President, Mrs. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee, Ala.; vice-presidents, Mrs. Mary Dickerson, Newport, R.I., Mrs. Helen Crum, Charleston, S. C., Mrs. Ella L. Mahammit, Omaha, Neb., and Mrs. Mabel Garner, New York; corresponding secretary, Mrs. F.R. Ridley, Boston, Mass.; recording secretary, Alias L.C. Carter, Brooklyn, N.Y.; treasurer, Mrs. L.C. Anthony, Jefferson City, Mo.; chairman executive committee, Mrs. Victoria Matthews, New York.

Tuskegee, Ala., Sept., 1895.

“Unity in Diversity,” the greatest good of all, and that which will serve to link the heart and hand of every woman in a common cause, should become the watchword of all in this nineteenth century.

American history has passed through the varied changes of one hundred and twenty years. Our country stands today strong, mighty and powerful — a verified solution of the “one in many.” A casual glance at the history of the nations of the world proves the superior strength of those who are united in purpose over those who are eyeing each other with covert suspicion, delving and scheming for petty, selfish ends, and stirring up anarchy and that strife that “divides man from man and makes him unmerciful to his brother.”

As the united mothers of ancient Sparta felt the necessity of resolute action in order to develop a vigorous constitution and make strong the emotional natures of their sons, so do our women of America need to feel the importance of a united fixity of purpose in reference to the affairs that relate to the development of the members of our sex; for with unity of purpose and resolute action, our women will receive an impetus that will urge them to a higher plane of mental, moral and physical life.

Thirty years ago, over two millions of our women were set free from bondage of soul and body. With few exceptions, such as had been gained by instinct, spiritual instruction, or a kind owner, none bad been taught lessons that tended to improve womanhood or motherhood, and their condition was most miserable. Without homes, and with no deep realization of their deplorable condition, many drifted here and there, often filling by the wayside, too helpless amidst their environment to have a desire to lead purer, nobler lives.

Not many years and the American Missionary Association and a host of noble workers began to open the doors of their schools to these people. They were stunned and bewildered by the reaction of their freedom from slavery, but the hearts of these former slave mothers began to quicken with the hope of securing the advantages of an education for their children.

With those born upon a more favored soil, many of these daughters stand today eager to lend a voice and a helping hand that will gain a reaction from the insidious influences of years of helpless bondage to the tempter, years in the thraldom of indifference, and years in the depths of some teachings that give its discount to lost virtue, degraded motherhood and the consequent tainted atmosphere of hundreds of our homes.

True, honored womanhood, enlightened motherhood, and happy, comfortable homes can only be secured by concerted effort on the part of the women of our land. Individual effort has accomplished some good in this direction, but the mighty effect upon the masses unreached will be the result of our future united effort.

In the month of July, 1895, Mrs, Josephine St.P. Ruffin of Boston called a three days’ conference of colored women for personal exchange of greetings. This meeting did much to inspire and give life to the women whose privilege it was to be present; and the result of this gathering is a national organization of colored women, who have for their purpose the general development of women.

In the name of the National Federation of Afro-American Women, I call upon the women of the United States of America to lend us their influence, their interest and their aid.

Our poor need to be fed and clothed. Our women must be taught to study for their own advancement.

They need inspiration and encouragement to keep a brave heart. Homemaking must be thought about, child-rearing needs attention. Our girls need social purity talks. They must be warned of evil company. They must be brought in closer touch with more that is good and pure. They must be taught to realize that they have a vital part to enact in developing the womanhood of their country.

All topics of social, economic and intellectual reform must in turn receive a share of our interest. For these and other reasons we need to form local organizations for local reforms in the cities, in the towns, the villages and country districts of our land.

We hope this call will touch many chords of hidden forces that will vibrate and respond, and thus our power as women of a national sisterhood will be strengthened and made more effective.

Let every delegate of the national organization answer to this by her individual effort “to uplift, to inspire, to do, to look for the noble purposes of life, and hold them aloft as a banner where those who see its folds waving shall say, ‘Behold the influence of goodness, of knowledge and of truth.'”

In organizing our forces, we ask the hearty cooperation of the wives of our bishops and ministers, our professional women and other women who see the needs of our sisters and will seek to find a remedy.

Any woman or body of women, after forming an organization with this end in view, founded upon a definite plan of work for a definite purpose, and having a president, secretary and other officers, if needed, may become a part of our National Federation by notifying the secretary, Mrs. Florida Ridley, 103 Charles street, Boston, Mass., or the president, Mrs. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee, Ala.

Let us take the words of Milton, who said, “We go through weakness to the greatest strength,” and we as a race of women may by constant progress attain that goal. Our gain shall be “Concentration of purpose, forgetfulness of self, interest in the social, educational and moral reforms of the day, enlightened motherhood, intellectual development, individuality, and with all a steady growth in development of noble womanhood.”


Mrs. T.H. Jeter

“Whatever our hands find to do ” is our motto. We shall endeavor to work accordingly.

Whenever and wherever we see a possible opportunity.

Our plan for the winter’s work: For our own improvement we will devote our time to reading what matter we may secure relating to the race and its interests, and will impart all the good we can by doing benevolent and charitable work wherever and whenever we see it needed.

Among the objects calling our attention is the Home for Aged Colored Women at Providence.

Entertainments will be given for the purpose of procuring funds by which worthy objects coming before us may be assisted.


Emma J. Wilson



Kindly allow me space in your widely circulated paper to call the attention of the public to a worthy institution in South Carolina which I have the honor to represent, the Lowry Institute and Industrial School at Mayesville, S.C.

This institution was organized in 1881. It was founded by a few poor families who felt the necessity of a longer term in school for their children.

We began teaching in a rented house with seventy-five pupils and two teachers. The number increased so rapidly that more teachers were employed. The present enrollment of pupils is two hundred, with three teachers. The indebtedness of the school is $1,000, and seeing the utter impossibility of paying on this debt without help on the first of July, 1895, I was elected and sent out to solicit aid for the institution, that the work so well begun may go on successfully. I was one of the founders of the Institute, and have worked very hard in its interest. I shall be glad of an opportunity to visit all the churches in and around this city for the purpose of asking all friends and well wishers of education to assist in paying off the present indebtedness, or to receive books, money, clothing, etc., that friends may see fit to give for the work.

I have recommendations from the leading citizens of my town, which will attest the genuineness of my work and purpose.

EMMA J. WILSON, 55 Kendall Street, Boston, Mass.,


We gladly make room for this plea. Miss Wilson’s endorsements are good, and her simple, modest manner will, we predict, make friends for the cause she so earnestly presents. — Ed.


Elizabeth E. Lane

October 4, on the return of Mrs. B.T. Washington from the Atlanta Exposition she called a meeting of the club to discuss the propriety of a barroom in the Negro Building there.

She described the bar, gave the supposed cause of its presence there, the present evil effects, those that will follow, and the lasting disgrace that the sale of intoxicants in this building will reflect upon the entire race.

In the discussion that followed it was agreed that the barroom should be condemned, expressions made public and a sentiment created by the public against this evil that should be righted. A committee was appointed to draw resolutions denouncing the bar. It was decided further to send a copy to Commissioner Penn of the Negro Building, to others in charge of Exposition, and to certain papers for publication.

Mrs. Josephine T. Washington was appointed chairman of committee, with Mrs. A. Logan and Mrs. Martha Hurd Willis.

The names of president and secretary of the club were affixed.

The Executive Committee of the Tuskegee Woman’s Club, Mrs. Booker T. Washington, Mrs. Josephine T. Washington, Mrs. N.B. Young and Miss M.M. Fleming, have arranged under various heads the following subjects for consideration of the club this first quarter: “Woman and her Work,” “Education of Negro Girls,” “The Temperance Movement,” “The Status of the Negro Ministry,” and “Robert Browning” — life, characteristics of style, Browning Clubs in England.

At the first literary meeting of the current year two phases of women’s work were discussed. First, “Women in the Home,” by Miss M.M. Fleming. She gave but little latitude for the woman in her home outside of the sacred precinct; but pictured the ideal woman in a home — worth having. “Woman in Business,” by Miss Leonora L. Chapman introduced facts and portrayed the business capacity or the new woman with a zest that created a fervor in the breasts of those who are advocating some of her principles, if not her dress. On the evening of Oct. 7 the subject for discussion, “The Education of Negro Girls,” was divided under eight heads. First, “The Early Education,” by Miss Mattie Child, who recalled the days of toil and pain that attended those who struggled in secret for a little learning. “Present Methods,” by Miss Milla Hadley gave a marked contrast over that of years ago and a corresponding feeling of thankfulness was aroused in her hearers. “Defects in Present System,” were strongly pointed out by Mrs. Young, who gave the danger of extremes, one-sidedness, and the lack of simple thoroughness in small things. “Suggestion for Future Improvement,” by Miss Sarah Hunt were timely. Miss Hunt gave her hearers some of the benefits she received from her summer course taken at Cottage City. “Home Training,” by Mrs. Irene Bond, struck a keynote that gave no uncertain sound, but vibrated throughout with the idea of its vital importance. “School Training,” by Miss S. Belle Bransford prompted each member to the serious duties that are involved in the work of training our student girls. “Training for Society,” by Miss Eliza Adams brought out more duties for mothers and others in training the daughters in habits of economy, in modesty, in uprightness and honesty in dealing with others.

The discussion of current news of the week, introduced by Mrs. Sara Peake Greene, was deferred. Reports from the various departments of the club evinced an interest that no doubt will strengthen as the days go by.


WHEREAS, in connection with the restaurant in the Negro Building at the Atlanta Exposition is a barroom, characterized by the usual paraphernalia and conducted according to the methods common to such places, and

WHEREAS, the presence of such a resort in the building bearing the name of the Negro and set aside for his especial use, is a stigma upon the entire race and gives rise to scenes tending, in their disgracefulness, to counteract, in a large measure, whatever favorable impression the Negro exhibits may make, and

WHEREAS, in the existing condition of things, this building is the only one in which our women, as well as our men, can feel perfectly at home, and this restaurant, which has the barroom attachment, is the only one which they are at liberty to patronize, therefore be it

Resolved (1) that we, the members of the Tuskegee Woman’s Club, having at heart the highest interests of the race, do hereby condemn the selling of whiskey in the Negro Building and that we

feel it an insult to at least the womanhood of the Negro race.


. Resolved (2) that we do hereby appeal to the authorities having these matters in charge to close this barroom and so to remove from us the disgrace, which, despite all the evidences of industry, of ingenuity, of intellect, of culture, and of general progress displayed in the Negro Building, must bring to the face of every self-respecting member of the race the blush of shame, as he enters the doors darkened by the shadow of this disreputable traffic.

Resolved (3) that copies of these resolutions be sent to the Chief of the Negro Department, to the Directors of the Atlanta Exposition, and to the public press.



Florence Balgarnie


To the Editor Woman’s Era:

At a meeting of the Anti-Lynching Committee held on October 10, Mr. Moncure D. Conway in the chair, it was unanimously resolved

“That the Anti-Lynching Committee having heard in the early part of this year of the marked diminution of murders known s lynchings in the United States of America, nevertheless observe with profound regret that within the past few months cases of an aggravated nature have taken place, more especially in Florida, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, and Ohio.

“While uniting with the friends of humanity in the United States in indignant protest against atrocities in eastern countries, they fear that such protest is greatly weakened by the participation of persons of their own race in burnings, shootings, hangings, mutilations, slayings, and dragging by the neck on the ground until choked to death by the dust of the street, which are characteristics of torture practised in America, upon persons innocent or guilty, without trial, or after due sentence has been pronounced by Court of Law.

They therefore appeal once more in the name of Justice and Mercy, to all Governors, Judges, Sheriffs, Senators, Representatives, Editors, Ministers of religion and other leaders of Social, Temperance, and Philanthropic bodies, praying them to co-operate in a vigorous and determined effort to end this terrible disgrace.”

Permit me also to add a few personal words of sympathy, and to say with whatdeep interest and concern I am watching the heroic struggles of your race against the shameful tyranny of Senator Tillman and those bent upon the disfranchisement of colored man in South Carolina.

I have also noted with pained surprise the passing of a retrograde law in Florida, rendering the co-education of the two races penal.

With most heartfelt wishes for the success of your efforts on behalf of Justice and Human Freedom, I am,

FLORENCE BALGARNIE, Hon. Sec. Anti-Lynching Committee, 14, Tavistock Square, London, W.C. October, 1895.



S. Willie Layton

There should be a united effort in the study and discussions of the reforms necessary to the progress of our people. The practical usefulness of a National Federation of our women is eminent. I hope the women’s clubs and organizations of California may respond to the call of the president. This federation means so much toward the emancipation of women, our women, and the general good of humanity.

At the state meeting of the W.C.T.U., Oct. 3d, the Demorest Gold Medal offered in the elocutionary contest was awarded Mrs. Aimee Murrels-Ray. The eligibles to compete for the grand gold medal were those who had won silver medals in their respective districts. With at least six competitors, Mrs. Ray won in her district. These medal holders contested for the country; Mrs. Ray won, then the counties contested for the state; this accomplished woman was again the success-

ful competitor, and will be California’s representative in New York for the National Diamond Medal. The only reference to this young woman’s color was when congratulations were being offered; a lady stepped forward and said, “I am a Southerner. Proud am I that by ability you’ve won, but prouder still to know your people sent such a matchless exponent. ‘Tis no longer color that is the total barrier — be qualified and competent.”


Probably the most important event before the Los Angeles women in October was the Woman’s Parliament. The first day was devoted to a symposium on dress: artistic dress, maternity dress, bicycle costume. A striking feature of the programme was an exhibition of a bicycle costume by Dr. Rose Talbot Bullard, showing the convenience and utility of her suit. The second day, woman suffrage was discussed from seven standpoints: Does the Wife Need It? Does the Mother Need It? Does the Unmarried Woman Need It? Does the Working Woman Need It? Does the Business Woman Need It? Does the Professional Woman Need It? Does Politics Need Woman Suffrage? I am certain no woman listening to these logical arguments longer questioned the need of the ballot for women. Mrs. Locke, of Pasadena, very cleverly handled the subject of artistic house furnishing, emphasizing the vital importance of making home beautiful and the available means within the reach of all to beautify their homes in this wonderfully beautiful land. At the close of the parliament women find themselves better fitted for the duties of home and the outside world, having gained by contact, social and intellectual, inspiration. The men, too, should have learned, atleast, that questions of importance can be thoroughly and intelligently discussed, and the point carried, without filibustering and confusion.

At the last meeting of the Woman’s Club the following officers were elected: president, Mrs. Katie Williams: vice-president, Mrs. Amanda Jones; secretary, Mrs. Lilla Williams; corresponding secretary, Miss J.B. Fry; treasurer, Mrs. Mary Harris.

Eureka! San Francisco boasts of originating something “new under the sun” – a “bloomer café,” where the best of service is given the patrons by girls attired in bloomers. It is said the waitresses were at first shy, but have found their costumes convenient for work. The advantages seem many, at any rate the girls have declared in favor of bloomers.

“Mammy Pleasance,” of the Sharon divorce case notoriety, is reported dying. Rumor insinuates that she carries with her many secrets that if known would cause many of the high hands of ‘Frisco to hang in mortification. She came to the coast from Boston early in the ’50’s, and has required great wealth, estimated to be way up in the hundreds of thousands and some hint at a million. Although having agents to collect her rents and look after her investments, she always supervised and was recognized as one of the shrewdest and successful financiers of San Francisco. Mrs. Pleasance was lavish with her money and has educated and supported several girls of good birth and saved from failure a number of business men. This old colored woman, in her alapaca dress and worn bonnet, was one of the familiar and prominent characters of San Francisco.


Josephine Silone Yates


Mary V. Bass

Few, perhaps, doubt the existence of the law of heredity; to do so is to doubt the very law of life, the propagation of species.

The psychological, physiological effects of the law, conditions which modify it, man’s power to direct the law and his duty to himself and his race in so directing it, are indeed matters of question.

Nature uses this means to visit the sins of the fathers upon the children, likewise his virtues. Among the strongest of human sensibilities is the love of parents for children, and when the law of heredity is accepted in its full force and, through this love observed, prison walls shall tremble, reformatories and refuges shall be institutions of the past, and man shall live in the full enjoyment of the Godliness within him.

Numerous astute minds have dealt with the question, among them Mr. Galton, who has tabulated the judges of England through two hundred years, the prime ministers through one hundred years, and so on through three hundred families

consisting of poets, musicians, divines, scholars, oarsmen and wrestlers. Of these three hundred families one thousand persons are eminent, four hundred and fifteen illustrious, and the general result is that one-half the eminent men have one or more eminent relations.


Another striking example is given of a family of five hundred and forty members, traced through seven generations; all descended from a common thief, the greater number of whom died on the scaffold for theft or assassination. On one side of this family shameful death on the scaffold or torturing imprisonment stood a constant menace, on the other the reward of a free, honorable and respected life, yet neither was so powerful as to overcome that inborn tendency to crime.

Distinctive genius or traits of character do not always appear to descend in a direct line; a generation or two may seem to lose the family bent, then a child is born giving evidence of the peculiarities of his grandparent or great grandparent. One way to account for this is by the Iaw of cross descent, that, as a rule, the mental qualities of the male progenitor descend to his female progeny, while the mental qualities of the female progenitor descend to her male progeny. It is often remarked that great men are seldom fathers of great sons. Another way to account for this is that the parent having the advantage of youth, health and mental activity will be reproduced in his child.

Ribot says that injudicious marriages are the cause of much of the degeneration in many families. In families of distinguished intellect it is found that there is a regular increase of power up to a culminating point, and as regular a decrease from that point. In the first case, marriages were consistent to its production, and in the latter they were incapable of preserving it.

The history of the races of man shows that physical and mental laws coincide in their action. The Jew is today what he was in the time of Moses. True his complexion is modified under different climactic conditions, but it is only by a long course of training, under entirely new conditions, that the Hebrew becomes other than the typical son of his forefathers.

Frederick William I., king of Prussia, recognized the fact that our peculiar bony structure, shape and size are an inheritance when he made it obligatory upon his soldiers to marry wives equal to themselves in stature, that he might secure a guard of giants.

Certain diseases of the mind and body are set down by the medical profession as hereditary, such as insanity, gout, rheumatism, consumption and scrofula. Science attempts to regulate but does not promise to cure. These words occur in a leaflet from the Moral Education Society: “Conscientious physicians, who consider the moral as well as physical hygiene, are perplexed and in despair over the problem.”

It is true that environment and training may modify the natural condition of mind, but always at the expense of greater energy and time than is necessary to overcome acquired habit. Hereditary traits have the great advantage of time. What circumstance of a life of twenty-five or fifty years could be so powerful as to overcome centuries of training?

The most effectual training which the human soul can possible receive is given before birth. If this be of such a nature as to counteract probable evil tendencies, the labor and time consumed in creating a new mental condition is much lessened and possibly rendered unnecessary later on.

In his treatise on the subject, Le Bon says: “Heredity governs the form of our body and its tendencies, the mind with its bent and its powers. It has placed in us those sentiments without which no society is possible, those intellectual aptitudes without which no civilization could have arisen. All the generations which sleep in the dust are living today in us. Among the various influences which draw men on, the most powerful of all is that of the dead.”


Fannie Barrier Williams

The work of the National Art Association for the promotion of the love of art among the masses signalizes an important movement in the realm of the aesthetics. It is a most gracious recognition of the refining and chastening influence of art in the life of the nation. The fierceness of politics, the strife of commerce, and the severities of religion all need the softening touch and ennobling influence of kindred arts.

I wish that I might say a helpful word as to how art may be brought into our home life and

made to minister graciously to the higher needs of our better selves. No woman sufficiently realizes the sacredness of her trust and privileges as a home maker who is not always ambitious to make her home bright, beautiful and refined, as well as comfortable and convenient. The world of art, with all its joyousness, moral and suggestiveness and purities, is now within the reach of any home that would appropriate some of its treasures. Indeed it seems as if the entire art world, by the use of the decorator’s skill, is assisting woman to understand and appreciate the uses of art in the simplest articles of home furnishing.


The time was when art was haughty and exclusive and had no interest in or sympathy with the common people. It then lent itself only to palaces, churches and temples. The great masters felt that art was exalted only when the ceilings of some great cathedral or the walls of princely dwellings were decorated by their genius. Then it was that only the faces of saints, kings and the nobility were worthy to inspire the portrait artist. Then it was that art found more glory in portraying the triumphs of war than the laughing faces of childhood. But thanks to the growth of liberality in all things – thanks to the potencies of science and the humanizing influences of education – art is no longer the exclusive servant of the rich and noble. It now finds as much inspiration in the cottage as in the palace; it is as much glorified in portraying the face of a pure woman or an honest man as in painting the faces of saints or sickly princes. In short, art has become the ardent lover of humanity, seeking in every way to glorify our lives.

As an illustration of this fact, the pictures of the Columbia Exposition will at once come before the mind, and we will recall that the most popular and prized pictures in all the departments were those which represented the most ordinary incidents in human life. Take, for example, the picture entitled “Breaking Home Ties,” made particularly pathetic by the recent heroic death of the celebrated artist who painted it. The artist here has seized upon one of the saddest incidents in family life – that is, the first break in the family union. The universal interest in this canvas was not so much due to its size, coloring or artistic finish as to the powerful representation of one of the tenderest sorrows of family experience. The artist has told here in a wonderfully impressive way the simple story of the power of a mother’s love and the sacred influences of a good home.

If any of us have denied to the Indian any feelings of sentiment, there was a small picture in the United States section capable of correcting this opinion. The artist here represents an Indian stooping to take a water lily from the pond. This seems a very simple incident to claim the attention of an artist, yet the idea sought to be conveyed is a large and instructive one. The grim visaged brave is returning from a hunt with all the evidences of his savage butchery of bird and beast about him, yet the sight of the lily seems for the moment to change his whole nature, transforming his savagery into tenderness and his thirst for blood into a love for the beautiful. The spirit of humanity in this picture appeals to us so powerfully that we lose sight of the savage and feel only the touch of kinship with all who are moved to pay homage to God’s gifts of the beautiful in nature.


Cora L. Smith

The lands are lit
With all the autumn blaze of golden rod;
And everywhere the purple asters nod
And bend and wave and flit.

Helen Hunt.

Just at this time our woods and prairies are particularly beautiful. Here in the lovely Southland tired Nature seems loath to close her eyes and rest. She lingers and hovers around us, putting on every day a different dress, which, in gorgeousness, eclipses that of the previous day. The long red grasses, waving beneath trees whose leaves are bright with a variety of colors which defy the painter’s art to reproduce, and the bright

sky bending above us, enclosing us in a blue haze, all form a picture upon which no eye can gaze without a feeling of reverential awe for the Giver of all good and perfect gifts.


How proud we have all felt over the achievement of our great orator, Mr. Booker T. Washington, whose address at the opening of the Cotton States Exposition excited more comment than any other of the day. Being a typical Negro, his grent qualifications cannot be attributed to his Caucasian ancestors. It was a sight to gladden the hearts of his race, to see him standing upon the platform, the cynosure of all eyes and surrounded by the pride and chivalry of the south, delivering an address to the very people who thirty years ago held his people in bondage and refused to believe that they were made for anything but serfdom. Truly, a new era is dawning upon us, and we should he glad and eager to recognize it. Of course, some of us do not agree altogether with some of his utterances, but every man has a right to his own convictions and they should be expected. For instance, Mr. Washington warns us against trying to spend our dollar in an opera house. Now, while it is certainly the best thing for us to be economical and less profligate, yet I can’t see why we should be debarred from spending our money to see a good play, such as Shakespeare’s tragedies, in which there is a world of instruction, any more than our more fortunate Caucasian brother. We certainly should be allowed to spend our money which we have earned, in any harmless way we may see fit, even though it be an opera house. Nevertheless, we all know that it is best to save all that we can, for there is no doubt but that the much talked of negro problem call only be solved by our growing intelligence and wealth. A man with money can do much more for his country, his race and himself than one without this necessary adjunct. Therefore we must get wealth. Get wisdom, but with all our getting, get wealth.

It was a day for much rejoicing when our legislature in extra session declared against prize fighting. We need our great state advertised, but not in that way. We repudiate the advertisement which other states refuse and which Dallas seemed determined to thrust upon us. Texas has too long been considered a haven of refuge for the disreputable classes from her sister states. It is time that we should let it be known, far and wide, that we have as good government here and as law abiding citizens as any in the Union.

The death of Mrs. N W. Cuney, last month, left a vacancy in our midst which cannot be filled. She died in Austin, where she had gone for her health.


Mrs. M.F. Fordham Just look! ‘Tis a quarter past six, love,
And not even the fires are caught.
Well, you know I must be at the office,
But, as usual, the breakfast’ll be late.
Now hurry, and wake up the children,
And dress them as fast as you can.
Poor dearies! I know they’ll be tardy!
Dear me! what a slow, poky man!
Have the tenderloin broiled nice and juicy;
Have the toast browned and buttered all right;
And be sure you settle the coffee;
Be sure that the silver is bright.
When ready, just run up and call me;
At eight to the office I go,
Lest poverty grim should o’ertake us —
‘Tis bread and butter, you know.
The bottom from stocks may fail out,
My bonds may get below par;
Then, surely, I seldom could spare you
A nickel to buy a cigar.
All ready? Now while I am eating,
Just bring up my “bike” to the door;
Then wash up the dishes, and mind now,
Have dinner promptly at four,
For tonight is our Woman’s Convention,
And I am to speak first, you know;
The men veto us in private,
But in public they shout, “That’s so!”
So bye-bye. ln case of a rap, love,
Before opening the door you must look.
0, how could a civilized woman
Exist without a man cook!


A combined reception to Rev. Father Page of England and welcome home to Father Field, pastor of St. Augustine’s, was arranged and successfully carried out by a committee of ladies in the lecture room of that church Thursday evening, October 24. Butler R. Wilson, Esq., made a graceful and eloquent address of welcome, to which both of the reverend gentlemen fittingly responded. The flower decked tea table was graciously presided over by Mrs. Sparrow, Mrs. Lewis, Miss Bailey and Miss Lillian Lewis.


THE WOMAN’S ERA, the organ of the National Federation of Afro-American Women, and devoted to the Interests of the Women’s Clubs, Leagues and Societies throughout the country.

Published monthly, in Boston, by JOSEPHINE ST. P. RUFFIN, FLORIDA R. RIDLEY, 103 Charles Street.


  • Per Annum, – – – – – – – -$1.00
  • Single Copies, – – – – – – – -.10
  • Club Rates, one hundred copies, – 7.00
  • Subscriptions Payable in Advance.



It might have been expected that Mr. Fortune of the New York Age, the proud paternal parent of the hyphenation, Afro-American, would buckle on his armor and go forth to do battle in defense of his cherished offspring, and in his zeal for the perpetuity of the thing he has given life to, call upon any who object to it to “face the music,” or admit that they are “in a bad box.” His most recent agitation is caused by a modest hope expressed by the WOMAN’S ERA that at the first gathering of the newest federation of women’s clubs, now known as the “National Federation of Afro-American Women,” the name will be changed, as it is a misnomer. Now it is much easier to give reasons for our objection to the name, “Afro-American,” than to give the correct “form,” as is demanded of us “honor bright.” Boston people, whoare accused by the Age editor of insisting “that they are something else than what they are, “are too busy rolling unnecessary words around under their tongues, be they ever so euphonious, and too conscientious to put counterfeit labels on anything. So because the appellation is cumbersome, unbusinesslike, and the use of it will help create proscription by more widely dividing and serregating a class that has as much right as any in the country to be known as Americans, without affix or excuse, we decline to be a party to this latest stamp act and decline to name this child until the coming leisure age gives time for the ethnologists to examine, divide, sub-divide and name the rest of the component parts that help make up the conglomeration known as the great American people. It is, however, earnestly hoped that it will not be necessary to wait for the critical analysis to be made before convincing those who now seem so anxious to prove themselves less American than others, that a people with two or three generations of ancestors born on the soil, many with an admixture of the blood of the Aborigines coursing through their veins, have as much, if not more right than any to be known simply as Americans. Until it becomes necessary to particularize (as it often does) the descriptive affix “colored” will fill the bill and cover the ground. So, with due respect for the antiquities, we must continue to reject the hyphenation, Afro-American, even though it is “a Latinization used by the Assyrians before the name of Christ,” and still insist it is a misnomer when applied to all Americans who are colored.


Many women are desirous of forming Clubs who, from lack of time or opportunity, have not been able to study the methods of successful clubs now in good working order. From such many requests have come. In giving a “club model,” not “model club,” we can do no better than to cite the methods of our own club, referring our readers to the reports from such clubs as the Loyal Union, the Washington League, the Kansas City League, for other and different models. Every club must work out its own salvation; adapt itself to the peculiar needs of its members. As has often been said, the Woman’s Era, which is composed of nearly one hundred and fifty women, is divided into committees, every member being put upon some one of the committees, of literature, civics, philanthropy, domestic science, race work, etc. Each committee takes charge of a meeting in turn, selecting an essayist, and these are to discuss the particular matter which is to be put before the club. The club has the usual officers, with an executive board, which maps out the work of the year and presents it to the club in the form of a printed programme. Some one committee may choose to have a public meeting with public speakers, some one to have it “tea,” some an entertainment to raise funds. “The ways they are many, the end it is one.” Many of the clubs of other cities carry on large and flourishing industrial classes, where cooking, darning, patching are done; some, including the Era, have classes in literature, music, etc.

Any body of women will find so many avenues opening to them that, having once started, they will need no leading. Of course, much that is discouraging will be met with, but the work, in the main, will be found delightful.


There is no class in the United States that suffers under such disadvantages as the colored women. This class has everything to gain and nothing to lose by endorsing the woman suffrage movement. Race prejudice is expressed in many ways, but the exhibition of it is often crushed when a vote is wanted.

Colored women are prepared and would be very glad to be eligible for state and city positions as clerks, stenographers, etc., and might be considered once in a while if possessed of a vote.

It is reported that the colored women of Kentucky outregistered the white women two to one in their ambition to get a colored man on the school board. In commenting upon this, the Boston Herald cites it as an instance of the ignorant class outvoting the intelligent class. To the unprejudiced person, this movement on the part of the colored women to obtain representation on the school board is an evidence of their earnestness and intelligence, and the sneer at ignorance is misplaced.

One of the most interesting incidents of the suffrage movement here in Boston is the desire to vote expressed by two inmates of the Home for Aged Colored Women, one of whom is ninety-two years of age and the other eighty-eight, and the spirited, intelligent letter sent by these old ladies to the suffrage leaders speaks volumes, particularly when it is realized that they have had no advantages in the way of education and environment. With the suffragists the colored woman is in good company; it is more often true that she is “in the house of her friends” with this class than with any other.


Any number of women forming themselves into a body for general culture, advancement and upliftingis eligible for admission into the National Federation. In the great bereavement that has come upon the chairman of the executive board, all further steps toward organization have been postponed. For the present, all clubs desiring admission need only to send their request to the president to have it acted upon immediately.


Elizabeth Piper Ensley


Elizabeth Piper Ensley “Where are you going, my pretty maid?”
“To the convention, kind sir,” she said.
“What will you do there, my pretty maid?”
“Engage in grave discussions,” she said.
“What will you talk about, my pretty maid?”
“Oh, ethics and economics,” she said.
“Altruism and such like things,
And the social changes the future brings.
“Civics, you know, till the air gets blue,
And the naughty, modern novel, too.
“Heredity, atavisim, don’t you know,
And how the young idea should grow.”
“Then I won’t marry you, my pretty maid.”
“I ‘d wait till I got a chance.” she said.


The first annual meeting of the Colorado Federation of Women’s Clubs was held at Colorado Springs, Oct. 1 and 2. There was a large attendance and great interest was shown in the proceedings

The morning session of the first day was devoted to business. The report of the president, Mrs. E.M. Ashley, was read. Mrs. Henrotin, president of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, opened the afternoon meeting. The keynote of her address was, “As you rise to triumph, what a host of women mount. Among other things she reminded the women of Colorado of the close attention being paid to their course, and begged them not to think for an instant that they do not want the suffrage or any of the privileges or duties which that implies. She felt like saying to them, “What manner of women are you, that this magnificent thing should come to you?”

The topic under “Trend of Popular Literature” – “To what extent may we accept,” etc., the conclusions of others without personal investigation, was discussed by Mrs. Ida DePriest, one of the two colored delegates sent from the Woman’s League of Denver. This was considered one of the hardest, if not the most difficult subject under discussion. Mrs. DePriest was equal to the occasion. She spoke with ease and crowded much thought into her five-minute paper. The subject was treated from an ethical standpoint, showing in many instances why conclusions deduced from reading magazine articles, reviews, and newspapers were false and not conformable to true progress. Mrs. DePriest said in part: “Only when the motive, intention, and apparent purpose of an act is known, and when a calm and comprehensive survey of the subject is taken, have we any right to express conclusions and then they must be placed on the broad ground of right.”

Mrs. DePriest, who was an agreeable surprise to the women, is a graduate of the Denver High School, and is corresponding secretary of the Woman’s League.

Among the other papers was one by Mrs. Lizzie Olden, the other colored delegate, who is president of tile Woman’s League. She talked upon “The Club as a Factor in Bettering Social and Civic Conditions.” Mrs. Olden said that grave problems were pressing upon society with such a force that one almost looks to the future with fear. In the day when the republic was in danger from rebellion, the moral support of the women was not less efficient than the bayonets of the men in settling the difficulty. In the new conflict of mental and social forces the women must come to the front again. Social conditions will never be better or purer than the best women of a community. She said: “Those who are called our best women have little right to their title unless they make use of their talents and their leisure for the benefit of the community.”

Mr. Olden’s address was frequently applauded.

The two ladies were the guests of Mrs. Dr. Solly, one of the wealthiest and most prominent club women of Colorado Springs.

Thursday afternoon, August 3, the Woman’s League gave an informal reception to the teachers and visitors who still remained in Denver. It was a most pleasing affair. The visitors were asked by way of encouragement to the league to tell of the organizations of women in their respective cities.

Mrs. Julia Hubbard, our own vice-president, welcomed the guests in a brief and appropriate address.

Fourteen different cities were represented. Miss Carrie Syphax, Principal of the Industrial Department of the schools in Washington, D.C., made the address of the afternoon. Possessing it thorough knowledge of her subject, she speaks with the utmost ease. All the mothers must have been impressed with importance of giving their children industrial training.

Among the others who spoke was Miss Coleman of St. Louis. She told in a very interesting manner of the Orphan’s Home maintained wholly by the efforts of colored women.

Mrs. Maguire of Kansas City made a pleasing address.

Mrs. Braxton of Omaha, Neb., in a very graceful speech spoke encouragingly of woman — thought she had awakened to a knowledge of her power and how best to use it for the betterment of humanity.

Mrs. Cassell of New Mexico congratulated the Deliver League on what it had already accomplished.

All present were highly entertained and instructed. Surely the women of Denver feel that they have grown by contact with the fresh, bright spirits that have lingered a while among the Rockies.


Sada J. Anderson

Indian summer has come to the Maumee. We doubt if our own Hallie Q., in picturesque Switzerland, has gazed upon a more lovely bit of landscape than can be seen here in the Maumee Valley.

Squaw winter has paid her fleeting yearly visit, and Indian summer, with its draperies of scarlet and gold, now reigns a queen upon her throne.

Perhaps no city in the Union is provided with the means of entertaining visitors at this season of the year as is Toledo. A trip around the Maumee belt, through a living panorama of river and autumn tinted forest views, is not an experience

to be had everywhere. Going around this belt, one passes the historical Fort Meigs, one of the endeared spots in the hearts of the Buckeyes. For several miles side by side runs the belt line with the sparkling waters of the Maumee; then almost ere we are aware, we go spinning through the forest, which at this season of the year is glorious in scarlet and gold and alive with the busy nut hunters who make the woods ring with their merry making. This is the season to bring the blood to the cheeks and the frost sparkle to the eye of those who love life and the world in which they live.


It was our good pleasure last week to take a flying trip down through the oil fields it short distance south of here. For miles the eye could behold nothing but huge oil tanks, and derricks to hoist from the interior of the earth that which God has placed there for the benefit of mankind and only obtainable by the “sweat-of-the-brow.” After a run of two hours or more we were in Findlay, the city that sprung up in a day during the great gas boom some few years ago. Things seem dead there since the boom has subsided, but we found our people alive enough to appreciate the good, beautiful and true, and on making known to them our especial business — the ERA’S interest — scarcely one failed to give the paper the proper support. For a small town, we dare say, that in intellectual aggressiveness many larger cities do not surpass Findlay. Here is a musical club called “The Sisseretta Jones Club.” Mrs. Emma French is the president. She will soon graduate in music from the Findlay College, an institution broad enough to make no distinction, throwing wide its doors to all for intellectual advancement. We bespeak for the ERA progress in Findlay among white as well as colored people.

If any of the readers of the ERA have never heard Rev. J.M. Henderson of New York City on “Our Certain Destiny,” be advised by one who has, and hear him at your very first opportunity. He has been with us this past week and delivered his excellent lecture in Warren Chapel to a small audience. On his return to Toledo, standing room will be at a premium, for he has reached the hearts of the people, through those who heard him.

Now, dear sisters, the Ohio department remains to be made what you will make it. I am sure that I am doing all that one can do to make it a success, and I ask your hearty co-operation so that we can all enjoy the fruits of unified labor, for the further advancement of our country-women. It is not so much the new woman as it is the awakened woman.

“To everything there is a season, and a time for every purpose under the heaven . . . A time to keep silence and a time speak.” By the necessary changes of time, this is our time to speak and do. Let us ask God to grant us that give whereby we may not abuse this glorious privilege extended us now, by taking all the honor to ourselves.

Let us act in the living present.


Rosa D. Bowser

A petition was circulated, in Lunenburg County, praying Judge Orgain to order the removal of the charged murderers of Mrs. Pollard from the Richmond Jail back to Lunenburg County.

The interest manifested by white and colored in the case, and the benevolent acts and expressions in regard to the prisoners seem to be rated as undue influence upon the poor condemned mortals. The order has been issued that the sheriff of Lunenberg produce the prisoners in the Lunenberg Court on Nov. 11. It has also been stated that no military escort will be desired by the sheriff.

A bazaar is in progress at the new Armory, and will continue for two weeks. Many attractions are presented for each night. The bazaar is conducted by the First Battalion Club, a committee of ladies who are assisting the soldiers to raise means in order to erect a drillshed in the rear yard.

Rev. Johnson the Episcopal rector, is superintending the erecting of a nice church for his flock.

Rev. Wells’ twenty-fifth anniversary as pastor of the Ebenezer Baptist church was celebrated on the first Sunday in October. On Monday night following, the committee in charge presented him with valuable gifts and provided a rich repast for the ministers of the city and their friends.

Memorial exercises will be held at the First Baptist Church on Sunday evening, October 27

in memory of the late Prof. D.B. Williams, who held the chair of Greek and Latin at the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. The memorial will be held jointly by the First Baptist Sunday school, of which he was once assistant superintendent, and by the Alumni of the Richmond Normal School.


The Friday Evening Literary, of which Mrs. Bowser is president and Miss K.J. Cooke, secretary, has commenced work for the season. In connection with a varied program from time to time, civil government will be discussed during the term. Each member is expected to study the subject thoroughly.

The Y.M.C.A. conference meets in this city November 1, 2 and 3. A committee of ladies, of which Mrs. R.T. Hill is chairman, are preparing to give the visiting Y.M.C.A. members a right royal reception.

The Woman’s League has raised in five meetings $541.


Sylvanie F. Williams

New Orleans, La., Oct. 11, 1895.

The club originated in the necessity which I saw all around me, of doing something to elevate the race, especially its women. I have been, for twenty years, principal of a public school for girls, and try as I would, I could not succeed to my entire satisfaction in making real true women of many of my girls, because my influence did not extend far enough into their lives. I therefore thought of working upon the morals of the mothers, the majority of whom were poor and ignorant and could not give to their girls the home culture proportionate to their educational advantages. For years I have felt that something ought to be done, but just how to reach them I did not know. I wanted help, but did not know where to turn to find it. At last the club idea dawned upon me. It was a happy one. I consulted some of my personal friends, and by coaxing and begging others, we succeeded in getting enough together to organize.

The object is plainly stated in the first article of our constitution, wherein we declare that we will do all that our hands find to do toward elevating and helping our women. Every intelligent, respectable woman is eligible to membership; the dues are only five cents per month, with no initiation fee. The dues were purposely made so small that no one could offer the expense as a plea for not joining us. The result is that we now number seventy good responsible women.

The club is divided into twelve committees, every member belonging to one or more of them. The appointments are not arbitrary; each one chooses the committee she prefers. This is allowed so that each one will work with more zeal when interested in the work. The Temperance, Anti-Cigarette, Suffrage and Social Purity committees preach their respective doctrines, scatter reading matter and form leagues of all who take anyone of the pledges. The Literature, History and Law committees form classes in the club, for our own benefit and improvement. The Self Help committee are organizing free sewing schools all over the city to teach poor girls how to sew, but especially how to mend, darn and patch, for I find that many of them go in rags because they do not know how to use the needle. Each member of the club pledges herself to furnish two ready made garments during the year, and we propose to solicit aid from our friends so as to be able to have, at least, one new made garment to distribute to each one of our poor by Christmas. The Philanthropy committee devote their time to prisons and houses of correction; they give sympathy, advice, and reading matter to the inmates. We propose to enlist the interest of the colored lawyers to look into cases where we have reason to believe that injustice or undue severity has been exercised in their sentences. The Hospital committee has charge of visiting the sick in the hospital and at their homes, where they give whatever aid they can. Of the free night schools, we had one in operation all last term and will soon open others. They are open to all young people who are compelled to work in the day and cannot afford to pay for their schooling. The Committee on Newspapers and Current Events search the papers and magazines for all articles, either commendatory or derogatory to us as a race or as women. These are brought to the notice of the club, which endorses them as the case requires.

I have given you an outline of our work. Of course we are somewhat hampered for want of funds, but as we have considerable talent among us, we are preparing to give an entertainment for the benefit of our treasury.


Medora W. Gould

Mr. Zangwill, whose letters in the Cosmopolitanare such a fund of information, is thus described by a friend. “Mr. Zangwill has a lovable personality and is a delightful companion. He is a brilliant talker, for he does not save all his good things for his books, and he likes to listen as well as talk. His sweetness of disposition remained untouched by the hard grind of his youth, and it is unspoiled by his present success. Ho possesses the quaintest of humor, the dryest of wit and the keenest appreciation of good qualities in others. In spite of his enthusiasm in anything in which he is interested, and an often childlike enjoyment of little things, the sorrows and the injustice of human lives have sunk deep into his heart. He is in his thirty-second year. It is not strange that people think of him as much older. Personally he might be described as an ungainly man, awkward and unconventional in dress and movements, with dark, irregular features, a mop of curly black hair, and large, pathetic, near-sighted eyes.”

Walter Besant is an advocate of the theory that novel writing can be learned like any other profession by anyone of ordinary ability, with due exercise of intelligence and industry. He is much interested in a sort of school conducted by prominent novelists, in which the manuscript of young authors is read and criticised, defects pointed out, and helpful and practical advice given toward improvement. In some cases the writer is advised to withdraw from a hopeless struggle.

“Religion in Common Life,” a volume of sermons by various ministers, indicates that the pulpit is giving to the people something other than creeds and dogmas. Among the topics presented are “Individualism and Socialism,” “Phases of Idleness,” “Problems of the Poor,” and “Religion and Politics.”

“Ave Maria,” by Miss Marie Louise Burgess of Boston, is an interesting story of love and devotion. It is a tale of the conflict between love and duty, in which love is sacrificed on the altar of faith. The neatness and correctness of the printing and the taste displayed in the binding make it an attractive little volume.

Edgar AllenPoe possessed the power of prophecy, for in a letter written by him in 1844 occurred this passage: “I perceived that the country could not fail of affording in a few years a larger proportionate amount of readers than any upon earth. I perceived that the whole energetic, busy spirit of the age tended wholly to magazine literature – to the curt, the terse, the well timed and the readily diffused, in preference to the old forms of the verbose and ponderous and the inaccessible.”

Queen Victoria is about to establish a literary order of merit for the recognition of those who, as journalists and writers of books, have done good work.


The best known preventive to consumption is climate, and it is generally conceded that Colorado has the best anti-consumption climate in America.

Hundreds come every year to Denver, hoping to prolong life and regain health; many of them do so who would otherwise meet early death.

The climate of Denver, dry, pure and sunny, with its elevation of one mile above sea level, effectually cures all incipient lung diseases.

Therefore parents having children predisposed to lung trouble are advised to send them to Denver to pursue their studies.

The fine public schools and the Denver University afford unsurpassed educational facilities.

Mrs. Ensley will take into her home a limited number of girls and young ladies desiring to get the benefit of the climate while attending school.

She will give special attention to home training and physical culture, particularly to chest expansion, diet and healthful dressing, while superintending their course at the public schools.

For further information address

Mrs. E.P.Ensley,
1755 Ogden St.,
Denver, Col.

Refers by permission to Mr. Nathaniel T. Allen of West Newton English and Classical School.


You are interested in the advancement of the race and want to do something to help on the work? Then pass the paper along and urge your friends to subscribe. You can not do better work than this.

Any one sending a two-cent stamp will receive a sample copy of the ERA.


Father Field is jubilant over the result of his labors in behalf of a West End branch library. The alteration and embellishment of the old West Church at the head of Cambridge street are nearing completion, and it looks now as if Dr. Bartol, who nearly ten years ago retired from the pastorate of that church, after fifty years of continuous service, will live to see the temple dedicated to broad culture and liberal views in religion, rededicated to still wider culture and larger possibilities as a well equipped public library.


To supply any of these Wants apply at office of the WOMEN’S ERA.

Private family will receive music student to board and lodge. Reasonable terms. Pleasant home. Kranich & Bach piano to practice on. Easy access to the musical life and institutions of Boston. References given and required.

Miss M.W. Gould will give lessons by mail in English composition, grammar, use of capitals, punctuation, formation of sentences, etc.

A woman of business experience and ability will act as confidential agent in taking care of or settling up the estates of women and children. Advice free.



What is this A.P.A.?

What its Plans?
Who its Candidates?
What its Principles?
Where can we join?

For full information, send 2-ct. stamp for — or ask your newsdealer for – or send 50 cts. for 3 mos. trial subscription of – the paper which advocates straight A.P.A. principles – THE AMERICAN CITIZEN, 7 Bromfield St., Boston.


128 Alder St., Pittsfield, Mass.

Will accommodate a few private boarders during the summer months. Five minutes walk from maple woods. Terms reasonable.


Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
51 Court Street,
Near Scollay Square. BOSTON.


MRS. H.L. KEMP, Artistic Dressmaking and Millinery,
Near Myrtle, BROOKLIN, N.Y.
Imported styles always on hand. Competent dressmakers always in attendance.


– TRY –

Will not spoil or foment in heat or cold, covered or exposed to the air.

PERFECT ICING never dries out or crumbles, all other Icings draw the moisture from the cake and dry it up. A PERFECT ICING will keep your cake from drying out.

PERFECT ICING should be put on in a very thin coating, like a varnish; it will give your cakes a beautiful gloss as well as flavor. Can be cut soon as put on by dipping your knive in cold water.

A 25c. Jar of PERFECT ICING will go further than 25 cents in Egg and Sugar Icing as you use it, is more healthful, and gives a superior flavor.

PERFECT ICINGS are put up in Screw Top Jars, also in Mason quarts, and in wooden pails of 25 lbs. each.


Remove the top, set the Jar in a moderate oven or warm place, until the contents are thin enough to spread. Take your knife, stir it up and spread on a cold cake, just as thin as possible. Set your jar away to use again.

Ask your Grocer for PERFECT ICING.
Almond, Coffee, Wild Grape, Orange, Strawberry, Vanilla, Chocolate, Pistash.

Prepared only by A.H. Peloubet & Co., New York.
See our Trade Mark A.H.P. is on every Label.

PERFECT ICINGS used in making Sherbets or Water Ices, Ice Creams, Sauces, Home Confections, etc. Will give their rich flavors and save work.

B.P. Ray, Agent. 2 Chatham Row, Boston, Mass.


Our Dress and Garment making is perfect; Prices reasnable; Fit, Style, and Finish Unsurpassed.
Hats and Bonnets made and Trimmed, 50c. to $1.00
Our Millinery and Dress Cutting Schools are the best in the world. Young ladies should come at once and learn.
HARVEY, 29 Temple Place, Boston.


Attorney and Counsellor-at-Law
34 School Street, Boston. Room 22


Why Not Advertise in the Weekly Journal of the Lodge?
With a circulation of 4,000
Write for terms and space.
NEW ORLEANS, La., Box 105.



Will be glad to serve afternoon teas, spreads, wedding breakfasts and dinners, salads, croquettes, ice creams, ices and confections. Polite waiters. All orders promptly attended to. Will call to arrange for parties on receipt of Postal.
15 Bow Street, Cambridge.
Telephone 23-2.
27 Jerome Street, W. Medford.
Telephone, Arlington 27-2.


With good recommendations, for all branches of work in Private Families, Hotels and Boarding Houses supplied from
Office, 103 Revere St.. BOSTON.



Is prepared to give First Class Accommodations to a few boarders at reasonable rates at the old stand.
62 PhilIips St., Boston.


Fashionable Dressmaker,
Latest Paris Fashions. All Work Strictly First Class.
Button Holes Made.
37 Buckingham St., Boston.


Artistic Dress Cutting and Making.
Also Corset Making by First Class and Terms Reasonable.
19 Brewery St., CAMBRIDGE.


Dressmaker and Fur Sewer.
Fur Cleansing and Repairing a Specialty. Best of References.
Work Solicited.


Fashionable Dressmaker.
Strictly First Class. Terms Reasonable.
Cutting and Basting by the M.E. Quinn System.


Colored Help a Specialty for Private Families, Hotels, Etc., at reasonable rates.
193 Cambridge Street, Boston.
Near North Grove Street. Belt Line Cars Pass the Door.


Cambridge Cleansing and Repairing Establishment.
We clean by Steam and Naphtha. Dyeing in all its branches. Kid Gloves and Slippers Cleaned. Give us a Trial.
C.J. MOORE, 433 Main St.



Has a thorough and systematic course of study, including a complete system of Physical Training and Voice Culture, Natural Rendering, and the principles of the Philosophy of Expression. Scientific and practical work in every department. Chartered by the State.

Address for illustrated catalogue,
Corner Tremont and Berkeley Sts.,
Boston, Mass.
Summer session at Martha’s Vineyard.


156 Charles St., Boston.
Three doors from eye infirmary.
Artificial Eyes a Specialty.
Telephone, 1198 Haymarket.



Collegiate and Normal Courses. Enlarged corps of teachers. Industrial training in domestic and mechanic arts, including printing. Instruction in both instrumental and vocal music and in elocution. High grade in every respect. A few deserving and needy students can be aided. Term begins Wednesday, October 2. For catalog, address President HORACE BUMSTEAD.



It is entirely original and is sure to satisfy a long felt want of young dressmakers, women who do their sewing at home, and those who anticipate learning the trade as the means of gaining a livelihood.

The book is self-teaching and can be used with any system or with paper patterns.

The order of arrangement places the rules where they will come in regular order for cutting and making a gown. In fact, the aim has been to make the work eminently practical for the average woman.

Liberal inducements to agents everywhere.

For further information and circulars, send stamp to

Mr. Elmer E. Casneau,
9 Greenwich St.,
Boston, Mass.


Condensed Milk Co.’s
Plain condensed (unsweetened) Milk Is the best known food for infants. Best article in the world for a cup of coffee. Sold in jars at the office, 2 1/2 Park Sq., Boston. Delivered three times per week.
I have used the plain condensed milk and found it worked like a miracle in transforming my weak, puny baby into a strong, plump one, after all other foods had failed.
10 Lindall Place, Boston.


Branch Store.
Nos. 13 and 15 Broadway Extension,
Boston, Mass.
Manufacturers of Clothes Wringers.
All kinds of Wringers and Swoopers Repaired. Orders by Mail promptly attended to.


New goods received by steamer every week. We never have an opening.
Always ready to show goods.
The old reliable house retains the same stand,
19 Temple Place, Boston.


Price, $15.00.
A useful and elegant present for ladies and gentlemen.
Over 100,000 in use.
Perfectly simple, practical, and durable.
No $100 machine can do better work.
Writes 77 characters. Capitals and small letters.
Never gets out of order. Perfect alignment always.
No instruction required.
Send for illustrated catalogue.
4 K Post Office quare, — Boston, Mass.



Will be opened June 1 to accommodate a few select boarders.
For terms address
P. 0. Box 45.



The First Edition has been nearly exhausted. An edition of 5000 is to be issued March 1st.

“Above all, let the negro know that the elevation of his race can come only and will come surely through the elevation of its women.” – Senator Geo. F. Hoar.

Miss Emma K. White, one of Chester’s most successful teachers, says: “The volume entitled The Work of the Afro-American Women [sic] Woman is a great success at this point.”

Miss Julia Songow, Germantown, Pennsylvania: “I have sold seventy-five copies of the Work of the Afro-American Woman within two weeks.”

Mrs. Jennie Euola Johnson of Trenton, N.J.: “I have been very successful in my canvass of The Work of the Afro-American Woman.”

Agents Wanted: General [ – 1 word] Offered.

Let [ – 4 words] desire to canvass during the summer, apply at [ – 7 words] of effort have already done well.

[ – 3 words] Red or Brown Cloth, 75 cents, White and Gold, $1.

Apply to Mrs. N.F. Mossell

1432 Lombard Street, Philadelphia, Pa.


A Soft, Pliable, Odorless Matting,
Warm in Winter, Cool in Summer.
An Ideal Sanitary Chamber Carpet
For All the Year Round.
Sews together and turns under.
Does not break or require binding.
No odors or germs or disease.
Insects do not trouble it.
Heavy furniture does not break it.
Double faced — double wear.
Artistic colors — stylish designs.
We cordially invite inspection.
Manufacturers and Patentees,
50 Essex St. (cor. Chauncy) Boston, Mass.


No. 1208 Pine Street, Philadelphia.


“Violets and Other Tales.”
A Collection of Short Stories and Poems.
By Alice Ruth Moore.
In Paper Covers, 50c.; Cloth, $1.00.
Apply to ALICE RUTH M00RE, 1924 Palmyra Street New Orleans, La.
Office of Woman’s Era, 103 Charles St., Boston.



Washington D.C., July 1, 1895

Furnishes instruction in the following departments and courses:

Theological, Medical, Dental, Pharmaceutical, Legal, College Preparatory, Normal, Musical, and Manual Training, including practice in carpenter shop, printing office, book bindery, tin shop and sewing school.

All students have the privilege of library and reading room without extra charge.

Tuition free in all courses except Medical Dental and Pharmaceutical.

Term opens September 18.

J.E. RANKIN, D.D., L.L.D., President.
J.B. Johnson, Secretary.


Homes for the People!

In Southern California, The Italy of America.

Lands Within Reach of Poor Men’s Means.

Of Los Angeles, California, Have placed upon the market
20,000 ACRES 20,000

Of the finest land on earth, which they intend to colonize with colored people, and at prices within reach of men of small means. In order to induce investments in these lands we offer 2,000 acres to the first settlers at $20 per acre and guarantee to deliver water to each 20 acres sold, sufficient for irrigation. These lands lie 60 miles north from Los Angeles, and 7 miles from the Southern Pacific R.R., and consist of a rich friable loam, being of sedimentary formation mingled with decomposed granite. The soil is from 4 to 50 feet deep, and is capable of producing everything on earth that grows in this land of wonderful production.

It lies at an altitude of 2,500 feet above sea level and is peculiarly on the land of the olive and almond.


are the rule in Southern California and more profit can be realized from 20 acres here than on 160 acres in the East.


the price will be $35.00 per acre.

It is not an unusual thing for trees in bearing to yield

From $100 to $1000 per Acre.

These lands have perfect title and will be sold for one-third cash, balance one, two and three years, with interest at 6 per cent per annum.

Full information will be given by applying to
H.A. PIERCE, President, or T.M. GIBSON, Secretary,
Room 37, Bryson Block, Los Angeles, California.